/r/linux4noobs

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Linux introductions, tips and tutorials. Questions are encouraged. Any distro, any platform! Explicitly noob-friendly.

Linux introductions, tips and tutorials. Any distro, any platform! Explicitly noob-friendly.

If you're posting for help, please include the following details, so that we can help you more efficiently:

  • your operating system and version
  • the hardware you're using
  • a description of the problem
  • output that was displayed (if any)
  • the things you tried to fix it
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Questions are encouraged. If you fix the problem yourself, please post your solution, so that others can also learn.

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/r/linux4noobs

220,338 Subscribers

1

Can PCIe wifi/bluetooth cards just not work on Linux because it's Linux?

[Reposting here, because the previous post was deleted and they said I should repost it on this subreddit]

I want to buy a PCIe wifi/bluetooth card for my upcoming PC build, but while reading on the internet, I noticed some articles (example) takes "Works with Linux" as a pro, like if not all wifi/bluetooth cards would work on Linux as opposed to Windows.

Does this mean, if I want to use Linux and a wifi/bluetooth card together, I have to specifically choose a card which work with Linux? (My plan is a Debian/Windows dual boot via partitioning, if it matters) If yes, how can I assess a random card on the internet if it works with Linux (assuming it is not something mainstream which has a million videos on youtube, pretend I live on Mars)? If no, is it safe to purchase any card?

Thank you for the help!

[Original post above; before it got deleted I got many comments about that I should choose a card carefully because not all cards support linux, and many people said I should buy an Intel card. Below is my response/edit:]

Thank you for the answers! I would have some follow up questions:

  • Many of you recommend Intel cards. Do they work with an AMD CPU? (Namely 5800X3D) I read that (example and example) some of the cards have Intel proprietary interface which only works with Intel components, but other cards which are not marked as such do work with non-Intel components?

  • Some cards' specification write "System Interface TypeWi-Fi(PCIe), BT(USB)". Based on youtube videos, the bluetooth portion of the card literally goes into the USB header as if it would be a USB dongle. Here somebody said a built-in card is always more reliable than a USB one, and here somebody said in-built and separate cards are the same. But if both a dongle and an internal card are connected with an USB connection, why is an internal card is more reliable than a dongle? (I don't argue the opposite, I just don't know why and how is this the case.) (I plan to buy this motherboard if it matters)

  • Among from Intel cards/chips, how can I know if the product comes with a kit, or just the sole processing chip itself without other parts/accessories? If the different retailers doesn't feature pictures other than the plain greenish card (neither any useful description about the product, some of them have even conflicting information, yay...), should I assume I have to buy antennas and other things separately? If yes, how can I ensure that the separately purchased accessories are 100% compatible with the chip?

0 Comments
2023/12/11
04:45 UTC

0

kinda messed something up

so i was looking for a live wallpaper for my linux mint (cinnamon) and i found one, it was shite and i deleted it but now my desktop is stuck on a theme from variety and i can’t do anything on the desktop, is there a way to get the default desktop back or do i have to re install/ use a new account?

1 Comment
2023/12/11
21:29 UTC

0

Linux distro for old MacBook a1534

Hello I'd like to ask what distro would you suggest for this device I'd like to dual boot with Mac for now at least as it is End Of Life for this laptop. I have a bit of Ubuntu and Fedora experience but it's very surface level

0 Comments
2023/12/11
21:04 UTC

2

Symlink a hidden folder in $HOME

I have an environment where $HOME is an NFS mount and people sometimes use others' computers aside from their own. So I'd like to redirect the .vnc folder to a local directory, away from the NFS mount, so VNC preferences stay specific to the machine.

These are all Ubuntu machines of varying vintage from 16.04 to 22.04 (trying like hell to get the older stuff updated, don't worry...)

So, I created /opt/realvnc then tried to symlink to it with sudo ln -s /$HOME/.vnc /opt/realvnc

When I then try cd $HOME/.vnc it just changes to the original directory path (~/.vnc). I logged back out and back in again to same effect. Not to /opt/realvnc

I'm not clear what I'm doing wrong πŸ˜… Or maybe I need to set this as an environment variable? Maybe it SHOULD be in ENVIRONMENT ?

Edit: to update/add relevant details from the original post

7 Comments
2023/12/11
20:20 UTC

2

Cannot format flash drive

Hello.

I'm trying different distros time to time, using 64Gb flash stick.

Today i could not dd image onto the drive, as i usually did before. It says there's no /dev/sdb.

Indeed, there isn't, and two volumes on the flash are /dev/sdb1 and /dev/sdb2.

Graphical Disks app cannot format nor delete those partitions, saying /dev/sdb is too small.

Windows can easily quick format the flash without problems.

Guys, i'm not dual-booting for format flash, how to wipe that flash on Linux? (how to properly connect it to be able to just wipe everything)

I'm not sure if dd could harm the flash, i will try cp instead.

The flash is ok as Windows can format it.

5 Comments
2023/12/11
19:26 UTC

1

Which Linux system configuration is best suited for laptops, but have a great Hibernation manager?

0 Comments
2023/12/11
00:49 UTC

0

Does Linux has program like FontLoaderSub could load only required fonts?

Hello, on Windows there's a program called FontLoaderSub (https://github.com/yzwduck/FontLoaderSub) that could load fonts only required by given subtitles.
Any similar programs or workarounds on Linux?

1 Comment
2023/12/11
19:13 UTC

10

I hate as a person what I'm forced to do as a user

Disclaimer: Potentially broken english ahead as this is not my native language, sorry for all the possibly nonsense sentences.

I'm not sure if this is the right subreddit to this topic, but it's not a thread against linux (if anything is just the opposite), this is just what I've been forced to do in order to enjoy linux.

So, this is like my 19th attempt to migrate to linux and I'm not even joking, been trying since I was in highschool (great times with Ubuntu 10.04 and 10.10). Back then I just needed a distro to watch youtube, use facebook and occasionally do homework, for this my beloved Ubuntu Netbook Remix + OpenOffice on my Dell Mini 10 were all I needed and loved, such great experience on that little computer. The feeling that I owned my computer, that I could do anything I want to do with it and the privacy (even before Microsoft's telemetry) was something I always wanted.

Anyway, those golden years are part of the past and for compatibilty issues I couldn't stay on linux while on my psychology studies and even less after when I had my first job, not even today where I work on my own. In the recent years I've been switching back and forward between Windows and Linux because of several situations:

As a user, I hated that my school mates saw something completely different when they oppened in Microsoft Office my part of the work that I saved with Libreoffice and I couldn't rely on that software to do such task, nor power point presentations or excel tables. As a person, I understood that this wasn't LibreOffice's fault, but Microsoft's, but that wouldn't change anything.

As a user, I hated having like 70% of my battery life that I got on Windows, as a person I understood that Microsoft have better knowledge at a hardware level thanks to their partnership with manufacturers and that not all the documentations are public, but that didn't improve my battery life, I could gain some minutes by installing some linux utilities.

As a user, I hated that I couldn't use my job's access file to do some work and I had to go back to windows to use Microsoft 365. As a person I know there are another alternatives but I coudn't force the entire company to do the change.

And, in the present, I still have problems:

As a user, it makes no sense that zoom is buggy on linux and the performance is worse. As a person I know zoom is a private chinese company that doesn't care much about their linux user base, but this is really needed for my current job, so I can't rely on that version.

As a user, I hate that I can't have OBS's virtual camera + zoom working together on my Lenovo x280, I mean, it works, but the camera is not smooth and the other person on the call notices the struggle while on windows it works flawlessly, as a person I know this could be resolved buying a more powerful laptop, but I like this one. Even when using linux on my desktop that is much more powerful than my laptop, for some reason recording with OBS gives a lot worse quality than Windows.

As a user, I couldn't believe that youtube have drop frames no matter the codec or the driver I try on linux, VP09, AV1, AV01, on wayland, on xorg, intel-media-driver, the stock driver on Fedora or Mint... it's always drop frames, while on Windows I can play 4k@60fps with no problem. As a person, I understand the drivers and the HW acceleration has to improve on web browsers.

As a user, I hate that there's nothing compared to "Controller Companion" on Linux, where in windows I can fully use a mouse and keyboard to use my computer with an xbox gamepad using it's audio output for headphones, as a person I understand the support is better in windows because the hardware is from microsoft.

As a user I hate all those limitations, and as a person it's frustrating, because I love linux.

I hate that everytime I install windows I have to burn the LTSC version if I don't want bloatware, that I have to use Chris Titus program to disable telemetry and some garbage that comes with a system that I originally payed a license for but I coudn't get rid of it spying on me for some reason.

I hate that I don't feel like I own my computer on Windows, that I don't know that is my pc doing while randomly it uses my HDD with no reason, that an update can make my computer go blue screen, that they try to force me into give them more of my information.

I hate that I love linux and I hate I can't use it to do all I need it to do with the same performance as in Windows.

So I hate being forced to have dual-boot and have Windows to do my job and Linux to really enjoy my pc, even with worse battery life, even with drop frames on youtube, but with the feeling of freedom.

I really hope the system keeps getting better and better as it has all this years and finally in the future being able to abandon Windows once and for all, but for the time being, I'll have to buy a couple of NVMEs so both my laptop and desktop can have both systems installed, because I'm loving Fedora 39.

6 Comments
2023/12/11
19:07 UTC

1

How can I repartition my drive for dualbooting?

I currently have one partition on my disk for linux, but I want to repartition it for windows so I can run windows executables (i havent figured out wine). I dont want to lose my linux data either.

1 Comment
2023/12/11
18:40 UTC

0

Which Distro should I use

I'm gonna put Linux on a LapTop I recently bought, the specs are:
Ryzen 7 3700U

AMD Radeon RX Vega 10

8GB RAM

256GB SSD

9 Comments
2023/12/11
18:37 UTC

1

Should I dual boot or is a VM fine?

Hello there, I have recently switched completely to Arch but for my university projects I need to use Excel and other software provided by my Uni. Now I have successfully set up a windows KVM, but since I have an SSD I'm not using, should I install windows into that disk and dual boot? The only reason I have to do that would be to get better performance since I don't have a graphic card to pass through to the VM.

2 Comments
2023/12/11
17:45 UTC

1

Making tmux understand a changed configuration file is a DEEP PAIN!!!

Configuring tmux status bar OK via CLI, but not via config file.

tmux understands this via CLI:

tmux set -g status-right '#[fg=colour64]#(echo $USER)'

But, when I input set -g status-right '#[fg=colour64]#(echo $USER)' in my .tmux.conf file, nothing is output after a configuration reload. I tried with set-option, but not working either. I even tried tmux kill-server, and no output via the config file.

Doing a reload of the config doesn't work. Even after quitting my session, killing the session and killing tmux daemon (pkill tmux), and restarting tmux.

There's some kind of mystery of why it's so much difficult to make tmux understand that a change has been made to the config file.

2 Comments
2023/12/11
17:41 UTC

1

My AMD Ryzen 5600H laptop is ramping up to 60C in seconds when almost any time I launch an app. Is this expected behavior?

I've recently started using Fedora 39 with GNOME. But the temps are way higher than what it used to be on Windows 11 (45-50 on W11 vs 40-65 on Fedora). Idle temps are normal but even when I just move the mouse cursor, temps immediately rise to 60-65C which also causes the fans to spin up loudly. To be sure I also tried Ubuntu and nothing changed. I know I can set a fan curve (which is probably what I'll end up doing) but this doesn't look normal so I'm a bit worried.

I tried setting the governor to "powersave" but it didn't help at all. I also can't figure out how to downclock on Linux so an explanation of why this happens and (if possible) any solutions would be appreciated. Thanks.

3 Comments
2023/12/11
17:38 UTC

1

Alternatives

Hey guys, trying out linux for the first time. Loving the overall fluidity of mint but Kinda disappointed with the inbuilt pdf viewer. Need suggestions for a really cool, sumatra pdf like substitute for linux. Priority being epub and pdf formats. Thanks. 😎

4 Comments
2023/12/11
17:06 UTC

1

Help me fix the partition! Pretty please!

I somehow managed to boot back into Windows after failing to install Ubuntu and getting back to Hard drive 3F0 error. But now, I am facing issues repartitioning the space I allocated for Ubuntu. I took a part from C: drive and now when I deleted the portion that should have had Ubuntu, it went into extended partition. I am unable to figure out how to repartition it into C: drive. Can anyone please help me fix it?

https://preview.redd.it/7ylrp1wdto5c1.png?width=1366&format=png&auto=webp&s=4817c8e398433c4baf2dc942eec8b1cba7c1b470

9 Comments
2023/12/11
15:52 UTC

1

Hello, What tech/ programming/linux podcasts do you listen to... would love to add some to my playlist

if you are in a small but growing tech community would love to join and conversate

2 Comments
2023/12/11
15:40 UTC

3

Is peppermint a good distro for someone new to linux?

I'm new to Linux and downloaded peppermint onto a USB and want to try to multi boot it but I'm not sure how good it is to use for someone new to Linux, I want a distro that is good for gaming and doesn't have the bloatware of windows

31 Comments
2023/12/11
15:37 UTC

2

Create keyboard shortcuts for shell

I'd like to use F3 and F4 for things like create file or folder in current dir rename current dir, copy curret dir's directory etc...

It there a way to set shortcuts for the linux shell in say debian like vim?

5 Comments
2023/12/11
14:55 UTC

2

A balance between lightweight and user friendly

7 Comments
2023/12/11
12:05 UTC

1

i3wm change keyboard layout

Hello everyone I'm new to linux. I used Ubuntu with gnome and there in settings was option to change keyboard layout. And now i can't find settings in i3wm to do so. Is there any gui program that i can install for settings in i3wm?

1 Comment
2023/12/11
10:00 UTC

1

Do I have to have separate users under the /home directory?

I'm just starting with Linux and I'm a little confused about how the /home directory works. I get that /home is where I keep personal files and configuration.

My question is about users. I'm the only user on my computer. What is the point of having a separate username folder under the /home directory? What happens if I put all my files and folders in /home instead of in /home/(user)?

For example, in Windows I can put folders right in C:/

In Linux my base directory is always going to be /home/(user)?

Sorry if this is a simple question. I'm running Manjaro and using Dolphin to view files so far.

9 Comments
2023/12/11
09:33 UTC

1

LOMP Stack

I'm looking for a very new tutorial for a LOMP Stack - tia

1 Comment
2023/12/11
09:20 UTC

8

Trying dual boot for Linux Mint and Win11 but getting error while booting

Hi,

I have used Rufus to install Linux on my USB drive of 32Gb,

I have tried below options already. Having AMD cpu and Gigabyte mobo.

  • I have cross checked SHA256SUM
  • Disabled Secure Boot and CSM option in my Gigabyte mother board settings
  • Tried 2 different usb drives and 2 separate downloads for Cinnamon edition of Linux Mint.

Please help!

BusyBox v1.30.1 (Ubuntu 1:1.30.1-7ubuntu3) built-in shell (ash)

Enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands.

(initramfs) mount: mounting /dev/loop0 on filesystem.squashfs failed: No such device Can not mount /dev/loop0 t/cdrom/casper/filesystem.squashfs) on filesystem.squashfs

https://preview.redd.it/iznz8n3mpo5c1.jpg?width=3889&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5f0133e5a62ec29cfa6befed3d5504b347461502

https://preview.redd.it/vqj99f8erm5c1.jpg?width=3813&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=065fee80c8f3a2fff924d019c77714e214020145

[SOLVED] https://www.reddit.com/r/linuxmint/comments/18fqckh/comment/kcww6vp/?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x&context=3

13 Comments
2023/12/11
08:55 UTC

2

Opening Google Chrome from the command line takes time and throws error

I recently switched to Linux Mint from Windows 11 (loving it so far). However, whenever I try to run chrome through the terminal, either by using `google-chrome` or `google-chrome-stable` command, Chrome takes ages to open and throws this error:-

https://preview.redd.it/9dxhlz40km5c1.png?width=649&format=png&auto=webp&s=24d3ef789aac4d78892b533919106ef76717d5e2

I tried googling, but nothing I found worked.

What is the error and how can I fix it ?

3 Comments
2023/12/11
08:19 UTC

0

Wait, you cannot choose and build program dir structures like in Windows?!

Hi there, new acc, long time lurker, long time Windows prisoner wanting to break free.

As an aspiring dev inspired by neovim motions I saw someone used, I decided to finally dual-boot Ubuntu at last(not for the first time though).

I'm totally willing to have growing pains when learning the unix infrastructure and working from CLI as much as possible to come to that seamless workflow everyone seems to be so irreversibly enamored with, asap.

BUT

I have come to be VERY meticulous with how and where I install my programs on Windows and right away I can see that seems to be not applicable to Linux as someone have observed here

I have always tried to sort my programs and files in thematic structures and try as much as possible to have everything on a D partition on Windows. The program directories on my system can get rather complex and paths become long as I go D\Software\Music\DAW\Plugins\FX\Reverbs for example.
It is very important for me to have this kind of architecture to at least look at because I can and often do browse through my software this way. It's the only way for me to really keep track of what I actually have and could use... and at the same time it's very easy to go there to fix and maintain things. Scripts, settings, inis', .dlls you name it. I'm so used to that, I don't think I could handle going at it the way the Panel in KDE for example is sorting things. I would have a mother-folder for each of my hobbies/side-businesses for example and inside of them there would be a collection of appropriate software(i.e portable browsers, portable Zim), appropriate document library, research materials etc.

One very good feature of Win10 that I grew very fond of is the Start Panel in which I can have apps sorted into fields, and not only apps but favorite directories and stuff. I couldn't however ever function by navigating the start menu list which is in alphabetical order. KDE seems to handle that by having "categories" but those are very vague and in any case, who decides if this particular program goes to the multimedia or the internet category?(if you ever used DAWs for music, you probably know that most of them do a terrible job at categorizing VST plugins) I just can't comprehend:

  • How you people manage to find the config files, presets, anything if you cannot navigate there(with gui if needed).
  • How do you not get confused by different but similar versions of the program? Firefox. Firefox Portable. Firefox-Portable-Instance-2, etc...
  • How do you as a noob make sure that the changes you apply via terminal pertain to the exact program you want to and not to it's counter-parts or different versions that share the same libraries or whatever?

From what I've seen, copying and updating/migrating things with the terminal seems like total magic and a lot of the time you don't get any confirmation(not to mention visual feedback) if things have been moved around/changed/deleted/replaced, and whether they are leaving traces behind. On Win you can see if you've erased shit and it's "gone"(yeah it's still in the registry and stuff but from the pragmatic UX POV, it just happens and you can go to sleep normally)

I'm afraid that there is just too much of that MacOS "it's just all in the bin" thing and I really hate not being able to compartmentalize my software the way I do my files... Help?

I am assuming that this has been always handled in some logical and perfectly reasonable way, I just don't know what that is! are there special "program explorers" for that or something? I mean the Muon package manager just simply sucks, and if you tell me that all my needs are accomplished with a terminal-based app, I am eager to learn... but I think there's very little appreciation for the mind-leap you have to do to get how differently things are separated and distributed compared to Win. Like, I just don't know how to handle multiple portable installs of Reaper in different (locations) and stuff.

Guys please help me. I don't want to spend days recreating my ecosystem only to find out I did some things wrong in the beginning and have to reinstall or jump distros or learn to compile Arch to get what I want... There's a lot of guides on how to get the basics done but if someone has like a step no.2 towards creating actual good work-flows to soften the learning curve, I would appreciate that greatly.

TLDR (I suppose I owe one) Is there a way to compartmentalize and segregate programs in some fashion and have them be "placed/located"(for the mental association) alongside(or at least like) the files and documents directories)?

​

PS. Yes I know windows is a mess and some apps just install themselves wherever they feel like, AppData, C:\ C:\program files whatever. But I can tame it 90% of the time.

PPS. If you insist I just keep using it and figure it on the fly by making mistakes... I'm just not capable of doing that at this point because I have way too much too lose with all my files now being on the same system in a dual boot and I can't afford to mess up my current Windows-dictated structure. I'm only talking about media and project files now, not the programs but still. Making a full jump would require migrating shit from my ntfs partition to the ext4 and if possible, I'll leave that for when I'm ready. Thanks in advance and sorry for the length.

17 Comments
2023/12/11
00:00 UTC

1

No bootable device found error

3 Comments
2023/12/11
05:29 UTC

1

Copy file from external media device to system files in a broken linux machine

Hi, so I'm running manjaro and managed to break my machine when running an update (the file libcrypto.so.1.1 is missing, but still referenced. Resulting in kernel panic) . I'm able to boot from my old os install memory stick, but at this point its server links have become outdated. I was hoping to copy-paste the missing file from my bootable usb into my broken machine and do a full upgrade from there.

Is this possible to do? If so, how?

Please show me the terminal commands in full if it is, I'm not the best with bash

0 Comments
2023/12/11
04:30 UTC

1

How to make Linux Lite vulnerable?

I am trying to make the Linux Lite VM vulnerable in order to detect CVE vulnerabilities. I was able to achieve that with Metasploitable VM as my target VM, but not with Linux Lite 4.0 VM. Any idea how to do so?

1 Comment
2023/12/11
04:23 UTC

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