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Discussion regarding the potential collapse of global civilization, defined as a significant decrease in human population and/or political/economic/social complexity over a considerable area, for an extended time. We seek to deepen our understanding of collapse while providing mutual support, not to document every detail of our demise.


Discussion regarding the potential collapse of global civilization, defined as a significant decrease in human population and/or political/economic/social complexity over a considerable area, for an extended time. We seek to deepen our understanding of collapse while providing mutual support, not to document every detail of our demise.

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503,308 Subscribers


Elderly man dies after contracting Alaskapox (Source: Forbes)



Submission statement: This might be something to keep an eye on. Another zoonotic disease. However, it is important to note that the man was immunocompromised - so if this is human-to-human transmissible, it may go a similar way to how COVID was handled. There are numerous sources covering this; this is just one. It's probably a wise move to keep tabs on this one. Just in case something comes of it.

[EDITED since I last posted this - I forgot a submission statement, like a numpty. Mods, if I've forgotten something else - please DM; I'll edit it.]

21:45 UTC


Endless Growth: Why Capitalists Want You To Have as Many Children as Possible

15:30 UTC


Weekly Observations: What signs of collapse do you see in your region? [in-depth]

All comments in this thread MUST be greater than 150 characters.

You MUST include Location: Region when sharing observations.

Example - Location: New Zealand

This ONLY applies to top-level comments, not replies to comments. You're welcome to make regionless or general observations, but you still must include 'Location: Region' for your comment to be approved. This thread is also [in-depth], meaning all top-level comments must be at least 150-characters.

All previous observations threads and other stickies are viewable here.

11:00 UTC


How did you adjust your life with the threat of collapse? How big of an influence it now has on your decision-making process?

I think it would be good to hear how you deal with the threat of collapse, and share your experiences.

Personally I decided not to have kids. Maybe some years ago I could have imagined having some, but now it is definitely no.

Also I replaced some of my hobbies with others that are as interesting but could give me a slight advantage in a major crisis event:

  • I learned how to fish
  • I learned how to preserve food (drying, fermentation, salting etc.)
  • I learn the basics of car mechanics, so I am less and less dependent on someone else's skills.

I quit smoking because it is good for me, but also because I feel that if the healthcare system collapses, then I don't want to take the risk to get sick because of tobacco.

I quit my office job and moved to the countryside 3 years ago. I want to live far from cities when things turn to shit. I now work in the fields, not really the dream job, but I learn how to grow food and I reconnect with nature somehow and I feel like my chances of survival are better in a small rural community now.

All these slight changes are still fulfilling and satisfying. I feel like I am reconnecting with my inner kid, the one who grew up in the countryside and before the internet. I am no survivalist and I believe in the resilience of mankind, so I want to hope for the best. Also, not everyone will be impacted the same way in case of a collapse scenario. I refuse to live in fear anymore, so I choose to continue to live my life as if tomorrow comes, and I hope i will have a slight advantage when things turn really bad.

Please share your own experiences!

17:28 UTC


Trending on r/Teachers

23:58 UTC


180-day running mean for the global surface temperature just crossed 1.70°C above the pre-industrial 1850-1900 IPCC baseline.

23:38 UTC



AI might seem like a fun and novel tool for us, but the truth is it's specifically designed to replace us, to make humans obsolete. In this video I break down what AI is today and why even this version is a major threat to us as people because it was DESIGNED to replace us.

17:04 UTC


What do we know about the state of the southern hemisphere ocean currents?

I'm usually playfully eye-rolly at northern hemisphere bias, but this is one time I'm genuinely frustrated by it.

The talk of the state of the AMOC has me looking for more direct evidence on my local current - the East Australian. I can't seem to find any studies or predictive models on any of the another currents except an uncited source saying the southern currents are warming 3x faster.

Is it just that our currents aren't as strong or impacting to the global systems? Or is there a shortage of research?

Thanks for any links or info!

02:21 UTC


AMOC Collapse: What changes will it bring?

I've been trying to pieces together the system puzzle of how a changing climate will affect literally everything for the better part of a year now and one of the questions I've had regarding one of the tipping points, the potential collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), is how will that affect the larger climate system? Yesterday, we got some specific answers. The study for which I'm sure you've seen the headlines (and you can find here: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.adk1189), has some interesting tidbits in it that helped me gain a better understanding and that I thought I'd share.

For those who don't know, the AMOC carries water from the Caribbean and and mid-Atlantic up the east coast of the US then across the north Atlantic bringing warm waters, and subsequently warmer temperatures to western Europe, notably France, the British Isles, Iceland and Scandinavia. The warm water then meets the cold waters and atmosphere of the Arctic where the water becomes more dense as it cools. Ice forms on the surface causing greater increases in density at the surface for the water that doesn't freeze, which causes the denser water to sink forming a downward current. As the atmosphere warms, the water doesn't cool off as quickly or to as great an extent meaning the downward velocity of water slows. This becomes a feedback loop which warms the lower atmosphere. More heat also causes more melting of the Greenland ice sheet. The freshwater flows into the ocean decreasing the salinity of the surface water. Since what causes the surface water to sink is the increased density of the surface compared to the lower levels of water, causing the water to be less dense to begin with increase the amount of salinity accumulation that needs to happen to induce a downward velocity. Over time, the entire current slows and weakens and eventually stops its overturning movement in the north Atlantic.

Several things happen if the AMOC is no longer overturning according to the study:

  1. Slow down in the current leads to increased warming between the equator and 30 degrees North (roughly the latitude of New Orleans for reference).
  2. The greater heat increases the strength of the subtropical jet stream north of the equator which slows down heat transfer from the southern latitudes to latitudes above 30N. This also increases the strength of the Hadley Cell in this region which means a strengthening of the wind currents from northeast to southwest. (More background info: https://www.noaa.gov/jetstream/global/jet-stream#:~:text=The%20polar%20jet%20is%20located,%2F%20442%20km%2Fh).)
  3. This leads to a a southerly deflection of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, ITCZ, which changes rainfall patterns for regions along the equator. The most drastic of which will be in the Amazon where the dry and rainy season will switch times of year due to changes in the ITCZ. Whether this deflection is localized to areas around equatorial South America or is a global southerly deflection is not discussed. If it's global, this might also cause rainfall changes in places like west Africa and Malaysia/Indonesia. (More background info: https://www.noaa.gov/jetstream/tropical/convergence-zone)
  4. If easterly trade winds across north Africa are strengthened, it would likely lead to an increased movement of Saharan dust into the atmosphere and more upwelling along the west African coast bringing more minerals to the ocean for seeding phytoplankton and sargassum blooms. This would be good for marine biodiversity off the west African coast, but with warmer, more saline, and acidic waters it might be a wash.
  5. Changes in rainfall patterns in the Amazon, changes in what time of year will reach a temperature extreme, and an overall reduction in rainfall, will exacerbate biodiversity loss and along with an overall reduction in precipitation will see the rainforest transition faster into savanna.
  6. A slower current leads to increased sea level rise due to piling from ocean currents and thermal expansion of water in the Gulf of Mexico and around the US East Coast which will cause greater flooding in these areas.
  7. Warm water is substantially reduced to practically nothing when flowing into the north Atlantic leading to cooler temperatures in northern latitudes and greater ocean stratification. The ocean stratification leads to a loss of dissolved oxygen into the deep waters of the north Atlantic which reduces plankton and affects the entire marine ecosystem in the north Atlantic.
  8. The cooler north Atlantic will see a drastic increase in seasonal sea ice. The study says that it could extend as far down as 50 degrees north which is about the southern most tip of England. Essentially, at some point you could travel across the sea ice from Ireland to Canada. This has a positive feedback effect on cooling due to the ice-albedo effect leading to greater cooling. It should be noted that the study shows a cooling effect at latitudes higher than 50N even in the Pacific, but it is far less pronounced in Siberia and Canada, and the western coast of Canada and Southeast Alaska don't show a temperature reduction.
  9. The cooler waters in the north Atlantic will lead to a fall in sea level along western and northern Europe. This will be due to a reduction in the thermal expansion as well as volume transport into these areas.
  10. The reduced temperatures in northern latitudes will slow and potentially reverse ice sheet loss in Greenland, but it will also cause a drastic reduction in temperatures across northern and western Europe, particularly in places like England, Iceland, and Scandinavia countries, but also as far south as Spain. While Madrid might see a temperature reduction of 2-3C, Bergen, Norway would see a fall of close to 13-15C.
  11. The reduced heat in the northern Atlantic will lead to reduced evaporation and consequently a drier Europe. This will affect agriculture for certain, but I'm unsure what this would mean for wildfires in the region. While there will be less precipitation, less heat means less evaporation of soil moisture and surface water. That doesn't mean there will be more fresh water available. Agricultural irrigation could still lead to continued declines in available freshwater. At the very least, I would expect a slowdown if not a reversal in the decline of alpine glaciers in central Europe due to a temperature reduction. This will have secondary affects which would likely include interruptions of trade on waterways for the region.
  12. Because the energy balance of the Earth hasn't changed, a major current that helped take warm heat into the deep ocean stops, and an increased subtropical jet stream slows atmospheric heat exchange along the boundary, the southern hemisphere will be warmer as a whole which will also lead to increased loss of Antarctic ice sheets.
  13. I'm currently unsure how an AMOC collapse will affect ENSO variability, but one study did find that there may be a reduced variability in extreme El Nino events. (https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/clim/35/16/JCLI-D-21-0293.1.xml).
  14. I don't know what this means for cyclone formation in the Caribbean and mid-Atlantic. While the waters will be warmer, the increased strength of the trade winds might cause more dust to be brought in from the Sahara disrupting formation. Weaker El Nino events might lead to less shear winds allowing more cyclone formation, but that's if an AMOC collapse leads to weaker El Nino events. I also don't know if it's been studied how a more southerly ITCZ and a stronger Hadley Cell movement would affect both Atlantic and Pacific cyclone formation and rainfall. The study noted that Australia would see greater levels of precipitation and it notes Southeast Asia as a region, but it doesn't define what constitutes that region.
  15. I'm also unsure what a colder north Atlantic will mean for the polar jet stream. I would suspect that cooler temperatures in those latitudes would lead to a reduced temperature gradient and reduce the polar jet stream causing more polar vortexes, but it might also lead to an even greater cooling at the polar latitudes leading to an increased gradient and therefore a stronger polar jet stream and subsequently less polar vortexes. More polar vortexes mean more climate variability, while less mean more climate stability in the temperate latitudes. I haven't found anything to give an indication one way or another.

Those are the at least some of the systemic changes, but how it relates to societal collapse depends greatly on when this occurs, what happens between then and the start of the AMOC's decline, and exactly how long it takes for the AMOC to collapse. The most recent model showed a rapid decline over a period of a 100 years, rapid being relative. The thing is about this 100 year collapse in the model is that they started "from a statistical equilibrium solution of a preindustrial control simulation and [kept] greenhouse gas and solar and aerosol forcings constant to preindustrial levels during the simulation," which means their model only took into account freshwater forcings on the AMOC. This means that even if the model was perfect (which of course it's not) it still doesn't take into account density changes in sea surface water due to heat. So it is feasible that it could happen more quickly than the model predicts.

It was reported this summer that a collapse of the AMOC was likely to happen sometime this century and could be as early as next year, but it was more likely to occur by mid-century (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-023-39810-w). If that's the case, this could be happening at a time when temperatures are already 3-4C warmer. If this were to happen over a period of 30 years rather than 100, even with increased warming over this time period (assuming climate emissions continue past 2050), Europe would have a climate more like today than a new ice age. While some areas like Iceland and Norway will be much colder than they are now, the overall temperature change would balance out with the heating, at least in western and northern Europe.

But that may not be the case. The cooling is caused not only by a loss of heat transport, but also the ice-albedo effect through the regrowth of sea ice. If the world is 3C warmer, sea ice might well be seasonal at that point. While a loss of heat transport by warm ocean surface water will have a sizeable cooling effect, it may not have enough of one to create the positive feedbacks of building more ice. It's possible that the atmosphere will have warmed to the point where even the disruption and outright collapse of the AMOC won't create as significant an impact as is being described in the recently published model. There would be some degree of cooling in northern latitudes, but the bulk of the effects of an AMOC collapse would be lessened by a world that's already warmed too much too quickly. If it were to start collapsing next year and did so in a period of two decades, we would likely feel the full effects. But if it were to start collapsing 30 years from now and we'd already experienced 10 years of ice-free polar summers at that point, I'm not sure how much of a difference it would actually make.

03:04 UTC


Bunkers - Just Expensive Tombs

Billionaires need to understand that they’re in this along with the rest of us. Their bunkers won’t protect them.

When things go bad their bunkers will be like Aladdin's cave, jam packed full of goodies that the rest of the population would kill for.

I’m predicting that when things go bad enough for a billionaire to hide in his bunker they will last less than a month, maybe only a few days or a week. In fact they might only last long enough to unlock the massive front door before the security detail takes over.

They might have ex special services soldiers with shock collars on their necks as security. They might have sniper posts and a minefield, (I hope I’m only joking there, but these aren’t normal people) but bunkers have vulnerabilities.

They have to have external power. For long term power in a collapse scenario I can only think of solar and wind. Either one would be easy to destroy from a long distance. Bullets, RPG, mortar, and I’m sure there are a lot more options too. Even one determined person with insulated bolt cutters.

So they’re down there in their bunker and the power goes out. Then after a few days the batteries are dead. They’re in the dark, nothing works and the unwashed masses are outside with pitchforks waiting for them (metaphorically speaking).

Or there’s the air intakes. Once again they could be destroyed long distance. Or filled with dirt, concrete, dead animals or ammonia.

Another prediction: there will eventually be a long list of billionaires' bunkers and their coordinates for everyone to see. As soon as the list is published it will go viral and can never be unseen.

An awful lot of people are needed to build a bunker. It only takes one to realize that the guy who’s been causing the collapse is trying to escape the results of his own actions. That person adds the bunker to the list.

So I’m not advocating violence against the perpetrators of human extinction. I’m merely making a prediction.

And the sooner the billionaires realize they’re as dead as the rest of us, the sooner they might actually do something to stop or slow down collapse. And yes, I know it’s already too late. And I know they’re too greedy to stop before the world is destroyed, but hopium is a powerful drug.

04:01 UTC


Last Week in Collapse: February 4-10, 2024

Antarctica warms, H5N1 spreads, conflict grows, and our crises continue converging…

Last Week in Collapse: February 4-10, 2024

This is Last Week in Collapse, a weekly newsletter compiling some of the most important, timely, useful, soul-crushing, ironic, amazing, or otherwise must-see/can’t-look-away moments in Collapse.

This is the 111th newsletter. You can find the January 28-February 3 edition here if you missed it last week. You can also receive these posts (with images) every Sunday by email with Substack.


The AMOC is at its weakest point in over 1,000 years, and scientists are afraid the tipping point may be closer than expected. A study in Science Advances claims “no realistic adaptation measures can deal with such rapid temperature changes under an AMOC collapse” and that we are trending towards a dangerous climatic future. However, if I understood this study correctly, it suggests that we have at least 25 years until the AMOC tipping point is finally crossed, and probably 75+ years until the feedback loop becomes dire. But a Collapse of the AMOC could mean a 5-15 °C drop in temperatures in northwest Europe and the disruption of the global climate as we know it.

A recalculation of global temperature increases since pre-industrial times suggests that we are actually already 1.7 °C above our baseline. The Nature Climate Change study measured a certain species of sea sponge, and determined that the oceans began warming in the 1860s. Earth has just finished its first consecutive 12 months of average temperatures hotter than 1.5 °C.

Exxon Mobil will search for oil off the coast of Guyana, in the region contested by Venezuela, despite (or because of?) rising regional tensions and Venezuelan soldiers gathering near the border. An oil ship ran aground near Tobago, spilling oil across 15 km of the island’s coastline. Italian farmers are bracing for Drought.

Iceland’s ongoing volcanic eruption has opened a new fissure and damaged water pipes, leading to a state of emergency being declared in several settlements. Some researchers believe Iceland is entering a new volcanic era, and that these eruptions could last years—potentially even centuries.

Chilean wildfires continue blazing, causing their President to label these the worst disaster to face Chile in 14 years. 15,000+ homes have been damaged and 131+ people killed. Scientists are saying that we should designate a Category 6 Hurricane rating for super-strong storms. Category 5 storms begin with winds of 157 mph (252 kph) but do not have a cap. In the last 12 years, scientists have measured six storms exceeding 193 mph (309 kph).

A Nature Water study found that warmer conditions in the United States actually made the soil more moist during summer. One scientist concluded “it's virtually impossible to predict soil moisture in the coming decades.” A study of microplastics in soil is sounding the alarm about the damage to the ecosystem caused through the breakdown of microplastics and how they will chemically impact soil health.

Analysis of Antarctic sea ice predicts that record lows seen in 2023 will not be broken this season, although the quantity will remain low. Yet another study says that part of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin in Antarctica—at 1,400 km long and 400 km wide, the Basin is 90% the size of Greenland—is closer to runaway melting. It contains enough ice to raise sea levels 10 feet (3 meters) when totally melted. {Some sources claim the Basin is the size of California but Wikipedia’s listen dimensions are much closer to Greenland’s size.}

In the U.S., 2024 is a year of big climate lawsuits, though analysts aren’t sure how they will all be decided. Monarch butterfly populations in Mexico fell by 59% over the last 12 months. A landslide in Georgia killed 4; a landslide in the Philippines killed 7.

Record temperatures across Africa, too many to individually name. Bolivia set a new February record, as did several Pacific island nations. South Africa and Dar Es Salaam set new night temperatures as well. The sea surface temperature is still setting new records, and a number of Caribbean nations set new records for February too.

This great flow chart grappling with climate change and Collapse may be worth your time. The new Secretary-General of the WMO said global warming is accelerating.


Dengue fever cases quadrupled in Brazil since last year, killing 40+ and forcing Brazil to conduct a mass vaccination campaign. Ecuador decriminalized euthanasia. The Fentanyl emergency is causing a continual stream of deaths on both sides of the U.S./Mexico border.

The complex emergency in Sudan (pop: 48M) is still becoming more complex—and more of an emergency. Cholera, measles, malaria, and hunger are rising, the internet was shut down in some places, and access to healthcare and clean water has become severely limited. The number of displaced has risen to 7.9M according to most estimates—by one count, almost 11M. A ship capsized off the coast of Tunisia, carrying at least 40 Sudanese people. China is cozying up to the Taliban with the hopes of securing some of Afghanistan’s minerals.

An experiment with nuclear fusion—a theoretically limitless & clean potential future power source–has come closer than ever before, according to a UK science institution. More research is shedding light on COVID and brain damage. Research into Long COVID is still being done—will we ever unlock a cure for this debilitating condition?

Ghana’s population has almost tripled in the last 30 years, resulting in haphazard development poisoning rivers and damaging wetlands. In the United States, 10% of premature births are linked to plastics](https://phys.org/news/2024-02-premature-births-linked-plastic-chemicals.html). We are beginning the “enshittification” of everything.

Although on paper the American economy may look strong, homelessness is at record levels—and that’s just the homelessness that we can quantify. And the price of servicing U.S. debt is ticking up. Germany is seeing a drop in commercial real estate, while China’s mammoth real estate market is trembling.

H5N1—bird flu—has infected another human in Cambodia, and spread to birds in Laos. Birds in Massachusets and in the capital of Niger have also been reported to have the disease. Chickens in Japan and in Czechia were culled over fears of spreading H5N1, and dead geese in Ontario tested positive for avian flu as well.


The Five Eyes Network—a security partnership between the UK, U.S., Canada, New Zealand, and Australia—is warning about Volt Typhoon, a mysterious cyber-sabotage state network of Chinese hackers who have allegedly been probing, hacking, laying digital mines, and exploring IT vulnerabilities in mostly American infrastructure. The U.S. is less than 9 months away from its consequential election, and the Supreme Court appears unwilling to support blocking Trump’s ballot access over his actions on & before January 6th.

Protestors clashed with police in Dakar over Senegal’s President’s decision to postpone an election that was just three weeks away. A constitutional crisis is coming. In Europe, farmers protests continue across the continent. In the DRC, M23 gang soldiers advance on Goma, sparking fear among locals. AI simulations of WWIII have nuclear weapons deployed in a tense arms-race. 8 Chinese spy balloons were spotted over Taiwan last week, between 15,000-38,000 feet (4.5-11.5 km) in the air.

Mauretania (pop: 5M) is partnering with the EU to slow the flow of migrants moving north. Most analysts predict migration to Europe will hit new highs in 2024. The Council of Europe is again criticizing the UK’s plan to send asylum-seekers/migrants to Rwanda for processing.

Islamic bombings killed 42+ on the even of Pakistan’s new elections. Although results are still being calculated, the political party of jailed ex-PM Imran Khan surged in the count, a shock turnout in a tense political moment. Nevertheless, a negotiated political settlement is likely.

Hangry protestors in Haiti demanded that their PM resign. Haiti remains deadlocked in a state of gang warfare, supply shortage, and deteriorating living conditions. In Türkiye, people continue struggling to live in the ruins caused by an earthquake one year ago. In the U.S., Trump is rising in the polls, despite (or because of?) statements seeming to encourage Russian aggression and with rhetoric against the EPA .

Myanmar’s ruling junta is making conscription mandatory for all men & women of a certain age. Recruits would spend 2-5 years in the military. A study of British crime determined that young men in the UK are at high risk of criminal exploitation, os, as the article also calls it, “modern slavery.” Security forces in Colombia dispersed a protest of about 20,000.

The U.S. announced it would not support an Israeli offensive in Rafah, south Gaza, as it is currently imagined. Nevertheless, Israel is bombarding parts of Rafah in advance of a ground invasion. This part of Gaza, swollen with an influx of refugees camping in the February desert, has been called “the world's biggest displacement camp.” Netanyahu rejected Hamas’ ceasefire proposal, aiming for “total victory” later this year. Tensions still hold firm at the Israel/Lebanon border, where some observers fear a second front. Others worry about Houthi forces sabotaging undersea cables, although Houthis probably currently lack the capability to do so; meanwhile, Red Sea shipping attacks are escalating. Israel also shot missiles into Syria, targeting an air base, and some are concerned that Iraq could be drawn into the War over American & Iranian strikes on its territory.

President Zelenskyy relieved his top general, Valerii Zaluzhnyi, with another commander known for risk-taking and his willingness to sacrifice soldiers for military objectives. It is the biggest shake-up in Ukraine’s War effort since the full-scale invasion began nearly two years ago, and a move that leaves many Ukrainians conflicted. Meanwhile, Russia released a {dis}information bomb in the form of a long interview with a controversial American media personality.

Russian strikes on Kharkiv blasted an oil depot, killing 7. Nepali mercenaries fighting in Ukraine want to leave—but many are wounded or captured, or otherwise trapped near the front lines. Ammunition is in short supply. This grisly before-and-after article about Mariupol illustrates how quickly, and totally, a thriving city can Collapse in War.

North Korea’s dictator is again threatening to destroy South Korea if provoked. Some analysts believe Kim Jong-Un is posturing more now because North Korean workers slaves are growing restless in China and at home. Although most observers do not believe that North Korea is preparing for a War, the situation on the peninsula stands, to some, as the most volatile since the 1950s.


Things to watch next week include:

↠ Next week is going to get hot in Europe, if this climate projection is to be believed.

Select comments/threads from the subreddit last week suggest:

-Results from the r/Collapse community survey are in; you may have already read the stickied post. Too bad only 1,223 people participated, out of 503,000 current subscribers. That’s 0.25% of the total subscribed collapseniks. Read the full data here.

-Poland may be readying itself for War, is this observation by u/neuromeat is accurate. Experts are watching for “unplanned military activities” and the price of everything has risen over the last year. It has also been a warm winter.

Got any feedback, upvotes, questions, comments, complaints, Super Bowl predictions, endorsements, escape plans, etc.? Check out the Last Week in Collapse SubStack if you don’t want to check r/collapse every Sunday, you can receive this newsletter sent to your (or someone else’s) email inbox every weekend. What did I miss this week?

10:17 UTC


Simple luxuries are becoming expensive

Casual Friday post. I have no quantfied data to support this idea, just general observation. Cheap snacks are slowly becoming luxuries. Middle-class cars are becoming upper-class cars.

For those of us above the age of...I don't know let's say 35, this might be a thing that we witness. But for younger people, this is a new reality of which they assume to be normal. $10 for a 12 pack of soda. $5 for a bag of chips. $4 for a dozen of eggs. 40k for a new car.

I used to think collapse would be something that would happen overnight, until I joined this sub. I have learned that collapse is something that is gradual. And I've also learned that I was born in the midst of its progression, not at the beginning.

Every year the new normal for the working class is more closely resembling the poverty class. We're in decline. And it's creeping in.

07:59 UTC

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