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All about proteins (from a biochemistry perspective) and resources for education.

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The Proteins reddit

Proteins - large biological molecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, replicating DNA, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in folding of the protein into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. Wikipedia: Protein

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Help Me Understand Plasmids

Hello I have a question regarding inserting a gene of interest into 2 different plasmids. In short, I am working on a theoretical project where my idea is to take a therapeutic protein that is typically produced in tobacco suspension cells and instead produce that protein in a rice suspension cell line.

Tobacco suspension cells typically use a CaMV 35s promoter that I believe constantly expresses the gene of interest.

Rice suspension cultures use an alpha amy 3 or RAmy3D promoter that starts expression in the absence of sugar.

So I guess my question is this…can I take the gene if interest from the tobacco plasmid and just plop it in the rice plasmid? What changes would you have to make if any? Any help is greatly appreciated. I have hit a dead end on google/scientific articles and do not have a strong background in this area.

03:34 UTC


Protein? Protein powder & Protein bars, risk associated with excess of protein

I found a great health related informational site… this is not any kind of advertising thing it’s just I’m sharing best of my knowledge with you because I’m into weight loss (I’m 99 kgs & reducing with the target of 70 kgs in 4 months) So, I was searching for the Protein on the internet, I got this great information & it helped me well.

What is protein?

Protein is an important part of your healthy diet. Proteins are made up of chemical ‘building blocks’ called amino acids. Your body uses amino acids to build and repair muscles and bones and to make hormones and enzymes. It can also be used as an energy source. Some people are taking Protein bars in a daily routine to fulfill the source of protein in their body.

Good sources of protein: Animal-based foods (meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products) tend to be good sources of complete protein, while plant-based foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, and seeds) often lack one or more essential amino acids.

Protein Powder

Protein powders are powdered forms of protein that come from plants (soybeans, peas, rice, potatoes, or hemp), eggs, or milk (casein or whey protein). The powders may include other ingredients such as added sugars, artificial flavoring, thickeners, vitamins, and minerals.

Whey protein powder is used to increase protein in the diet and is being studied for possible health benefits.

Protein powder may also aid weight loss and help people tone their muscles.

Protein bars?

Nowadays, Protein bars are a popular way of supplementing or a source of protein for health freaks. People use it as a part of healthy eating throughout the day or post-workout snacks.

Protein bars can give you a high intake of protein as per your daily requirements, you must take care of the calories and sugar added to the bars.

Protein bars do serve carbs, protein, vitamins, and some minerals, etc.

Note: Protein can damage the kidneys if you aren’t serious about taking it in recommended dosage.

High protein diets may include carbs limitations which will result in Constipation, headache, and bad breath.

I thought this was the best information for me so I shared with you all.

Hope it will Help you!

07:01 UTC


Programmable protein delivery with a bacterial contractile injection system (open access)



Endosymbiotic bacteria have evolved intricate delivery systems that enable these organisms to interface with host biology. One example, the extracellular contractile injection systems (eCISs), are syringe-like macromolecular complexes that inject protein payloads into eukaryotic cells by driving a spike through the cellular membrane. Recently, eCISs have been found to target mouse cells1,2,3, raising the possibility that these systems could be harnessed for therapeutic protein delivery. However, whether eCISs can function in human cells remains unknown, and the mechanism by which these systems recognize target cells is poorly understood. Here we show that target selection by the Photorhabdus virulence cassette (PVC)—an eCIS from the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus asymbiotica—is mediated by specific recognition of a target receptor by a distal binding element of the PVC tail fibre. Furthermore, using in silico structure-guided engineering of the tail fibre, we show that PVCs can be reprogrammed to target organisms not natively targeted by these systems—including human cells and mice—with efficiencies approaching 100%. Finally, we show that PVCs can load diverse protein payloads, including Cas9, base editors and toxins, and can functionally deliver them into human cells. Our results demonstrate that PVCs are programmable protein delivery devices with possible applications in gene therapy, cancer therapy and biocontrol.

14:05 UTC


"Protein Analysis Gets a Boost: Researchers Develop Advanced Label-Free Technique Using Ultraviolet Nanophotonics"

21:22 UTC


TP53 p.L111Q Missense variant - Predicted structure?

Hi, I’m way out of my depth, but I’m an IT professional with interests in AI/ML and I’m fighting metastatic Rectal cancer.

I had next gen sequencing run on my tumor and one of two biologically active mutations identified is, TP53 p.L111Q Missense variant- LOF, where my tumor is coding for glutamine instead of leucine.

Three questions for the learned:

  1. Am I right that it should be obvious how to determine the new amino acid chain sequence for the mutated protein given the information above and

  2. If no one was yet done so, that info would be enough to feed into Alpha Fold to predict the 3D structure of my mutated P53 protein?

Obviously, I’m thrilled at the prospect of contributing to my treatment / survival, but I know that’s a pipe dream. However, if I could even contribute in some tiny/insignificant way to the field, it’d be extremely fulfilling. If there is a library to confirm the mutations whose resulting protein structure has already been predicted, I’d welcome being pointed to it as I haven’t been able to find where anyone has done this for my specific mutations.

Last arrogant/desperate question:

  1. once the structure is predicted, should we not be able to eliminate or affirm it as a potential antigen target (unique to my cancer) for genetically engineered/modified T or B-Cells ?

Thank you for entertaining this admittedly ignorant cancer patient with a layperson’s newfound fascination with biotech.

1 Comment
16:47 UTC


Stony Brook University Protein S Research


I hope you are doing well!

I am writing this on behalf of the 2022 Stony Brook University iGEM team. I am writing to let you know about a crowdfunding effort my team and I are undertaking to help fund our research project which involves finding a new, effective and safe solution for patients with a blood clotting disorder related to Protein S deficiency.

iGEM, which stands for “International Genetically Engineered Machine,” is a competition where teams apply synthetic biology to solve specific problems all around the world. Our team is focused on Protein S deficiency, a disorder of blood clotting which affects people with a genetic disposition and those affected by severe cases of COVID-19.

For a while now, our team has been facing the troubles of funding a research project. Especially for undergraduate projects like ours, funding is a huge issue. In our search for support, we realized that since we are primarily doing this project to help the community, crowdfunding may be a choice for us. This is why we have teamed up with WeSci.org - a crowdfunding platform where researchers can submit their unfunded ideas to receive funding directly from interested backers. By contributing to our project on WeSci you can have a direct impact on our research, which in the long run can bring help not only to patients with Protein S deficiency, but also those suffering from severe forms of COVID-19 who develop this deficiency as a side-effect. 

We would deeply appreciate it if you can back our campaign and help our us reach out to people who would be willing to contribute to our cause!

Below is our campaign link, with our project description and contribution link!


Thank you for your time and kind consideration!

22:40 UTC


Where buy protein other than merck ?

I am starting my thesis and I need to buy a P. aureginosa protein, I saw it in merck, but they don't have it available, what other company can I consult?

22:02 UTC


Please Explain the Fundamentals of Performing Conjugations

Hi All, I work at a lab that produces antibodies. We have three groups in our lab. Purification Group, QC Group, and Formulations/Filling Group. I’ve been wanting to do Purifications for a long time & have been learning little by slowly every day. I’m specifically very interested in Conjugations & understand somewhat of the process.

I was very fortunate for getting to travel to one of the labs in California to help out one of our sites & I got to learn Conjugations, but there was a lot of repairs we had to make on their columns, so I didn’t get much time to learn everything I really wanted to. Plus the way they do conjugations is very different from our lab.

I was wondering if someone could explain the fundamentals of the conjugation process. Why it is done. What benefits it has & who it can help and influence. Please!! Thank you!!

22:59 UTC


Curious about amyloids

Hi people,

Just started 2nd biochem at university, so my knowledge is not at the very best level. Currently, I'm occupied with amyloid fibrils and questions about diseases they cause. Would u mind to recommend some new papers and interesting topics related to the war between people and amyloids?

21:26 UTC


Is there a website where I can find A-Z about a specific protein?

22:40 UTC


The other great class of biological molecules

I am reading Richard Dawkins's book, "The Selfish Gene."

In chapter 2 he talks about chemists putting simple substances into flasks and providing a source of energy. After a few weeks, something interesting occurs . . .

...amino acids have been found—the building blocks of proteins, one of the two great classes of biological molecules.

I have two questions:

  1. What is the great class of biological molecule to which he refers: amino acids or proteins?

  2. What is the other great class of biological molecules?

11:45 UTC


Are there any protein inhibitors that systematically inhibit all proteins with a specific domain like PDZ?

1 Comment
10:57 UTC


Dye Conjugation to Antibodies

Hello everyone. I recently joined a lab that conjugates dye to antibodies. They were very behind in work so I learned the techniques but not the actual science behind it. Does anyone have any articles explained the biochemical steps behind dye addition to IgG and IgM antibody isotopes?

1 Comment
13:02 UTC


Proteins: Explained by MinuteEarth

21:54 UTC


FokI as gene editing protein


I was wondering why can't FokI be changed to recognize specific sequences and then cleave them. Rather than hybridize them with zinc fingers or TALs? Anybody know? Thank you

14:12 UTC


PDB for T7 DNA polymerase


I was wondering if anybody knows how to find the specific amino acid sequence that the fingers, thumb and palm domains are composed of? Thank you very much!

20:59 UTC


Help with Liquid Phase Peptide Synthesis

Hello everyone. I was assigned by my teacher to create the dipeptide L-aspartyl-L-glutamate from the free amino acids using solution phase peptide synthesis. So I know that first I have to protect the amino group of the L-aspartic acid using acetic anhydride. But then I'm stuck. I need to then protect the side group which contains a carboxyl group, but the amino acid also has another carboxyl group on the same carbon as the amide group. I have to protect the side group one but not the other one, so that it can react with the amino group glutamic acid. What should I do?

20:09 UTC


Algae-Based Spirulina Augmenting the Protein Extracts from Single Cell Protein Sources Industry

The protein extracts from single-cell protein sources market is being driven by the rising awareness on the environmental and human health benefits of alternative proteins, increasing initiatives by public and private-sector firms to meet the demand for these, and their surging usage in animal feed. From $5.3 billion in 2017, the market is expected to grow to $8.7 billion by 2023, witnessing a CAGR of 8.6% during 2018–2023 (forecast period). A number of unicellular organisms, including algae, fungi, yeast, and bacteria, serve as sources of proteins.

08:02 UTC


Deep Mind - It will change everything

18:26 UTC


Simple and useful explanation on Western blotting

05:35 UTC


Hey everyone i have made a video on SDS PAGE technique. Hope this video is helpful.If you have any topic then please comment so i can make new video on that topic. If you all like this please like, comments and share your feedback. Stay tuned!!

06:07 UTC


Hey everyone i have made a video on electrophoresis which is one of the important topic lo learn. Hope this video is helpful. If you all like this please like, comments and share your feedback. Stay tuned!!

15:46 UTC


Introduction to proteins and amino acids [Khan Academy]

16:14 UTC


Apply to be a moderator

Please comment below to be a moderator of /r/proteins

Looking for Doctors, Biochemistry or related majors and people interested in proteins from a Biochemistry perspective.

22:00 UTC


International Conference and Expo on Proteomics and Metabolomics

International Conference and Expo on Proteomics and Metabolomics. The conference will take place from June 18-19, 2020 in Montreal, Canada and focuses on the role of Proteomics and Metabolomics in therapeutic target detection. The theme of the conference is “Investigating and Exploring Proteomics and Metabolomics through Advance Approaches.”

The conference brings together experts from different fields to present their latest findings and experiences in research related to the conference’s subject and theme. It further discusses the role of proteomics in drug discovery and in identifying new therapeutic targets for better treatment of various diseases including cancer. 

Several applications of proteomics and metabolomics analysis and their role in neurodegenerative diseases will be further discussed at this event with particular attention on their role in cancer treatment. This multi-faceted event will incorporate prompt keynote sessions, oral sessions, plenary talks, interactive workshops, exhibitions and a wide range of educational and social events that help in fostering new connections among scientists, researchers, students, and industry professionals.

The organizing committee is preparing an exciting scientific program that includes different topics covering current trends in proteomics, cardiovascular proteomics, proteomics databases, and therapeutic targets and biomarkers. We hope that this meeting will be an exciting reference event for all the participants for their research in these fields and will offer a new direction to enhance their career and business goals.

We look forward to welcoming you to Proteomics-2020 in Montreal.

09:41 UTC

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