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A place to discuss all things biology! We welcome people and content from all related fields.

Welcome to /r/Biology!

A place to discuss all things biology! We welcome people and content from all related fields. Feel free to share the latest news, discuss relevant content, show off your latest publication, or ask for help on anything from career choices or to ask about recent biology research.

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Why is it safe (and recomended) to wash an open skin wound with water but it is said to be dangerous to inject water into a vein?

Wouldn't the open wound act as a pathway for the water to enter the bloodstream triggering haemolysis?

06:50 UTC


Why do I wake up on dry summer days feeling dry and dehydrated, but with a full bladder...

...even if I drink excess water the night before? The water's obviously not left the system - evident from the clear urine in the morning. Why is it not used to keep me feeling hydrated?

05:21 UTC


What dinosaur does out DNA most closely match to?

Which dinosaur is our closest ancestor?

04:38 UTC


Quiz question

Freckles are a dominant trait. A woman with no freckles marries a man with homozygous freckles. What are the probabilities of the phenotypes and genotypes of their offspring?

Wouldn't the answer depend entirely on if the mother was homozygous or heterozygous? 25% if the mother is homozygous f and 50% if the mother is heterozygous?

02:04 UTC



Most commonly in mutualism do both species need each other to survive or can they survive on their own and are just benefiting from each other?

01:30 UTC


Is it better to learn from reading books or is it better to learn from reading articles?

Which one is better as someone who wants to become a scientist in the future?

00:27 UTC


Is it possible that Neanderthal predation caused the evolutionary changes that define modern humans?

Referencing Vendramini's book "Them and Us" on NP theory that suggests that rapid factor X changes approximately 50,000 years ago came about because of the powerful Darwinian selection pressure adaptations needed to survive the "wolves with knives" Neanderthals that preyed upon early stone age homo sapiens in the Middle Eastern Levant region at that time.

23:39 UTC


Route to Bio MS for unrelated bachelor's degree

I have a bachelor's degree in the liberal arts. I took very little science and math in undergrad. What would be the best way to work my way towards a biology master's degree? With the goal of eventually being a research scientist/working in a lab.

It looks like it might be possible to complete a second bachelor's in 2 years. (accelerated programs, or maybe a special program for people who already have a bachelor's?)

Alternatively, just taking individual undergrad courses with the goal of getting a GRE score good enough to get me into a MS program looks like it might also be an option.

I am willing to work hard and spend the necessary time, but I would prefer to avoid doing another 4-year bachelor's if at all possible.

What do you recommend?

20:33 UTC


Human acclimatisation to cold

Before the Industrial Revolution, it must have been hard for people living in temperate climates to stay warm in winter. Things we take for granted, like window glass and effective heating systems (not even cast iron stoves), were unaffordable for most people, and warm clothes and bedding were a struggle.

Did people, raised with cold and habituated strategies like sharing body heat, adapt physiologically and physiologically, or were they as miserable as modern humans would be in coping with low temperatures for months at a time?

19:31 UTC


Sickle cell anaemia treatment

Let's say you have the patient, and a batch of healthy red blood cells using stem cell treatment. How would you replace their sickle blood cells with the healthy ones? Would you just inject the healthy ones?

And also, can IPS stem cells be used to treat genetic disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis)

19:02 UTC


How exactly did life evolve from nothing? Can someone please explain "Abiogenesis" to me in a way I can understand? I am fascinated by the evolution of life on earth.

How did the primordial soup come to be? What steps were involved in turning lifeless matter into organic compounds? How DOES that happen?

18:54 UTC


Why are human noses shaped like they are? I can't find any inherit benefit.

Human noses, compared to other apes,mammals and animals in general are, relatively,"hooked", With the nostrils facing downwards. Our ape relatives all have noses that are flat,with the nostrils facing forward. Why did humans evolve such strange nasal anatomy?

18:12 UTC


Black espresso makes me fall asleep within 15 minutes of drinking consistently

Hey all,

I'm a 20 F with severe ADHD as well as anxiety. I do not consume much caffeine, (I don't drink soda with caffeine or consume energy drinks besides on rare occasions), but I have been taking the same dose of 20mg Adderall XR since I was 12. My entire life I have associated coffee with making me tired, and many people do not believe me. I feel like I'm going crazy—I need an explanation.

Every time I try to look it up online, it talks about a caffeine crash or added sugar. Here's the thing, it's not a crash—I don't get any alertness at all, I just become exhausted immediately after drinking (15-25 minutes). The sugar explanation is also completely invalid in my case. Since I started trying to have a morning routine again about a couple weeks ago, I'll have a small double shot of espresso with less than a teaspoon of sugar (if any), and a small amount of frothed milk.

Actually, I have noticed that the less diluted my drink is, the sleepier I get. Throughout the years when I have had coffee on and off, the times I've drank sugary desert iced coffee, I don't get nearly as hit like a train with exhaustion. If I add more milk to my coffee, it prevents the falling asleep as much. The worst of the exhaustion seems to happen the more concentrated the coffee is, like drinking it black. I really like coffee for its flavor and variety of ways you can make it, but I can't enjoy it half the time. I'll wake up feeling super alert and refreshed, make my coffee as part of my ritual, and then PASS the f out. I'm so frustrated, why is this happening?

I feel like it has to be the caffeine. For example, if I drink a sugary iced coffee from Biggby, I'm completely fine! But if I get a plain iced coffee from Dunkin', I will struggle to keep my eyes open big time. I found out afterwards that Dunkin' is known for high caffeine and Biggby doesn't have much caffeine in their coffee. This would also explain why the high concentration (like drinking black coffee) makes me even more tired. Something about the presence of caffeine makes me exhausted. There have been only a couple times in my life that coffee has EVER made me feel alert.

People don't believe me, and if I seem tired after drinking coffee, people get confused, like they think I'm faking or wasn't serious when I told them how it effects me. Is this all in my head? How am I rolling over and going back to bed for two hours after drinking espresso? Please help, I would like for my morning coffee to wake me up like it seems to for everyone else):

Note, this doesn't apply with most energy drinks. They don't really effect me much, but if I finish a monster really fast because I'm thirsty, I can get jittery.

13:03 UTC


What are some ailments that some organisms bring upon themselves?

I was just wondering about how we as humans have a lot of health problems that are derived from things we’ve created, like eye problems with blue light for example. Are there any other organisms that have like a niche little thing that they do specifically that also causes them to be vulnerable to something?

11:45 UTC


Can slugs consume nicotine through their skin?

The other day I saw a slug cuddled up against a discarded little bag of snus (powdered tobacco that is consumed by placing it in between the lip and gum.

What was the slug getting out of that? Was it chasing a nicotine rush?

08:35 UTC


Undergraduate thesis that is doable for a conflicted student

Hello! I am a college student currently studying under BS Biology, majoring in microbiology. I am currently scouring for ideas to do as an undergraduate thesis along the topics that will be bulleted below. I am currently conflicted with the possible twists or gaps that I can investigate or do myself. I am from a university that has limited accessibility to lab equipment and has financial constraints so I really hope that you guys could enlighten me! Thank you so much.

  1. E. coli and S. aureus antimicrobial-resistance coming from food handler's hands in hospitals inside the city.

  2. E. coli abundance coming from microplastic isolates from harvested and eaten macroalgae.

  3. antimicrobial-resistance of E. coli isolates from biofilms on microplastics found in rivers with huge anthropogenic activity.

06:28 UTC


Does Nature itself have no ways of dealing with invasive species?

Does nature/ecosystem have no ways of dealing with invasive species without human intervention? It just seems incredibly incredulous to me that nature or an ecosystem which has a spontaneous self-organising system would need any human help to deal with invasive species. We’re talking about the same ecosystem that proliferates itself into the bio-diversity it is today from a bunch of inorganic matter, that survives mass extinction/catastrophic cosmic events like asteroid impact or way more inhospitable natural environments without any human intervention. Plus, wouldn’t an “invasive” species simply carve itself a niche in an ecosystem?

What even counts as “invasive species”? I don’t imagine there being a solid enclosed ecological boundary or isolated ecosystem that gatekeep the immigration, is there? I mean don’t the tectonic shifts naturally happen, land bridge emerging from and submerging into the ocean? Even without these geological events, I imagine that some coastal species simply find itself aboard some driftwood and travel to a new continent by natural accidents.

02:12 UTC


Do captive/pet animals prefer realistic toys?

Anecdotally, my cat's favorite toys are all 'realistic'--small, fuzzy, and mouse-shaped. If not his mouseys, he favors his feathery bird toys. He likes 'abstract' and plastic things occasionally, but not often.

I've heard that dogs prefer squeaky toys because they mimic the dying squeaks of a prey animals.

I'm wondering if pets and other animals generally prefer 'realistic' prey-like toys over abstract ones. Is there any data on this? I think the ethological implications could be really interesting.

01:23 UTC


Is eating above caloric expenditure a necessity?

As someone put it, there is no free lunch, so energy has to come from energy storage from food we eat.

If someone only ever eats an amount of calories that equal expenditure while awake, there wouldn’t be enough energy to remain alive while asleep, correct?

In other words, is some level of energy storage is an absolute necessity? Or is there a way that the body can continue to work without any energy storage while asleep?

00:36 UTC


Fibrocartilage specilization

hey all!!

I was reading up on fibrocartilage and how it's different from hyaline cartilage. It said fibrocartilage can repair itself better. What cell in fibrocartilage can divide and make new matrix stuff? I think it's called ground substance and fibers or something like that. Just wondering because hyaline cartilage can't heal itself but fibrocartilage can.

1 Comment
00:35 UTC


Are humans neurons grown in a lab conscious??

Was scrolling on YouTube and I thought about this. Is there a way to know for sure?

23:38 UTC


Can you call yourself a biologist if you only have a B.S. in Medical Laboratory Science?

I want to call myself a "biologist", but I chose the MLS major because I'm afraid of securing a job after graduation. I also feel like MLS takes the principles of biology and applies them to real world situations to help people.

I do plan on attending graduate school.


22:58 UTC


remote biology jobs?

hey there, ik the job market is poor for anyone, but am i screwed trying to find a remote job with a B.S. in biology? im disabled and starting to not be able to do my job as a quality lab tech and wanted to explore possible remote options with my degree

22:54 UTC


Simple resources to help me understand molecular biology?

I’m applying for a graduate position researching telomere length in hibernating species, to put it simply. I’m in my last semester of undergrad studying wildlife biology, I’ve had one genetics class and zero molecular classes.

What are some good videos, documentaries, papers, etc that may help me get a good grasp of this stuff? I’ve watched a lot of YouTube videos but I want to really try and solidify and develop my understanding on the subject. It’s hard to figure out where to start.

22:05 UTC


Can, and do some, amphibians lay their eggs underwater?

I know that amphibians lay their eggs in water, but all the examples of eggs I've seen show them half submerged with the other half unsubmerged, but can certain amphibians lay their eggs fully submerged? For example: on a lake bed.

21:52 UTC

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