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A focus on genes, how they're made, what they unfold to become

The 'Genes' reddit

Genes - the molecular units of heredity of a living organism. They are used extensively by the scientific community as names given to some stretches of deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) and ribonucleic acids (RNA) that code for a polypeptide or for an RNA chain that has a function in the organism. Living beings depend on genes, as they specify all proteins and functional RNA chains. Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism's cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. All organisms have genes corresponding to various biological traits, some of which are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some of which are not, such as blood type, increased risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that comprise life. The word gene is derived from the Greek word genesis meaning "birth", or genos meaning "origin" Wikipedia: Gene

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R Package for Automatic Phylogenetic Tree Creation

06:37 UTC


What is the overlap between cultural(linguistic) categories and genetics?

I don't know how to precisely articulate my question but I will try my best.

I would like to know to what degree do cultural(primarily linguistic) determinations overlap with genetics. I've read somewhere that Czechs, Slovenes and Hungarians are the most related among themselves. Czechs are a West Slavic Ethnic group(linguistically most related to Slovaks and then Poles), Slovenes are South Slavs(linguistically most related to Croats) and Hungarians are not even Indo-Europeans but a seperated group altogether(usually categorized within the Finno-Ugric group).Another example is Serbs(South Slavs) being related to Albanians(whose language likely evolved from various Illyrian languages).

I know that language(and culture in general) and genetics don't always necessarily overlap. For example, most of the Middle East and North Africa were Arabized in the early middle ages and most of those countries and their population now speak Arab and consider themselves Arabs. Genetically speaking, only some of those countries(I think Iraq and Lebanon for example) have actual Arab populations. Or France for example. You had pre Indo-Europeans(like Basques), various Celtic tribes, Romans, Germanic people like the Francs. The country takes its name from the Germanic Francs and speaks a Romance language evolved from Latin while it's population is diverse from a genetic point of view(and that's not even taking into consideration more modern migrations).

I would like to know to what degree do terms like Indo-European(and subgroups like Germanic and Slavic), Semitic, Finno-Ugric carry weight when it comes to the actual relations between different populations from a genetic point of view. Are modern Dutch and Croats more closely related to people of North India(who speak Indo-European languages) than are those people to their Dravidian countrymen(who speak a non Indo-European lanaguage). Or are modern Turks more closely related to Kazakhs(who like them speak a Turkic language) or to modern Greeks or Kurds for example(both of whom are Indo-European).

I hope I've posted my question in the right place. I realize it's a little off topic.

21:22 UTC


Plea for specifics. Ortho Surgeon has refused me answers, comprehensive care, tests, or answers. Now threatening me. Kidneys & liver are failing are the main concerns . Unfairly, primary is doing her best, but I need to help her efficiently.

I'll give you the short and sweet as best as possible. Specifically, because 8 years ago I had some similarities on physical pain. Was told bloodwork (differential, not absolute levels) was "all normal". A week later flat lined in surgery, and my surgeon doesn't find this medically relevant. I know my blood type is O, but to this day I haven't gotten an accurate answer on +/- RHD and RhCE so maybe weak D or a combo. I'm trying to get broad but comparative sequence genocode report or blast to map gene code, immunoglobulins, proteins, antibodies, alles, with mutations and precursors (for plasma, enzymes, amino acids, peptides), to have a process of elimination. It's the software that I can't figure out! I have no idea which would be the most accurate for me, the code ID's, bio markers, assembly, or layout.

Yes, I know this wouldn't be exact but, time isn't on my side. My surgeon has stated in my medical notes that I have a mental disorder, a hypochondriac, and if I want testing I'll have to go to my primary. This is a terrible burden for her, and back at square 1 for us both since we have only know each other a year. I need to show her my level of competency for her to feel confident referring back to my notes and understand why I'm asking for specific tests I'm asking for to cover my ass and not die again... If I can outline common denominators of my adaptive immune response failing or genetic issue, targeting bile, enzymes, proteins, and so on will show I'm not being argumentative about what's not normal now or 8 years ago. My BUN is almost 0, platelets over 400, HDL 90, lactic acid is rising, as always low blood pressure and shallow breathing.

This will sound fucked up but true. Being born in a border town at that time limited the quality of medical care Mexican/Americans received, and most certainly behind on equipment, testing, medications, or advanced standards of care. Embarrassing, to admit but possibly relevant for suggestions to check on.

Context: 36yr female, in (was at least) immaculate physical health because I was always ill growing up, an orphan at 9, then was a competitive boxer till my mid 20's despite my chronic issues. The little I know, remember, or later found out about my birth (second and last pregnancy) was my mother induced a few weeks early and I was supposed to be a boy, most likely because my twin past between 2/3 trimester. After my delivery they removed a grapefruit size mass of my twin out, then tied her tubes at 22. I later found out she had ovarian cancer ending with a hysterectomy before 40. My father had a gallbladder rupture later in life. Maybe my mom was RH- and it's a simple shot?

As bad as my allergies were I can't even take Flonase without testing positive for steroid use. I never liked soda, stopped eating all wheat, bread, and dairy 10 years ago, don't take any Pharma/over counter meds, wear makeup, hardly drink, never got covid, hate salty foods, drink a gallon of water DAY or more unintentionally, on a protein & alkaline diet because of my chronic fatigue, inflammation, swelling, headaches, chronic dry mouth, joint pain, weirdly cold all the time while sweating like a linebacker at the same time. My food allergies growing up were awful, but now only effect my stomach and gut, My skin's allergies now are to adhesive, horrible hyper pigmentation, If I get a scratch its there for a year, and now patches of hypopigmentation. I stopped training at 23, but I still enjoy gym time so my BMI could be from 19-22%. Hell, I've never even broken a bone in my body till now.

The Last 6m Story you want a laugh: In April I was giving a tight goodbye hug to a friend smaller than me lifted her on her toes and her weight on me. My knee gave out on the medial side. I didn't even cry, weirdly laughed immediately said I lost my ACL maybe MCL. From the radiology report, level 2 lcl tear, near full tear mcl, total ACL, Tibia fracture, bone cyst with contusions including marrow edema on my femur and had be sent to a specialist, not the doctor I wanted. I still don't have all the answers. I'm 5 weeks out of ACL surgery and labs have been declining since may. I've spent 2.5 hours with this man and half I was unconscious for. I've never been disrespectful, accusational, or escalating.

Frankly, after years of boxing, unless you punch me in the face, being bitchy isn't going to offend, scare, or deter me from asking about my health. Pretty sad when you're the one talking him off the ledge. Simple questions like "where is my tear? what scale would you give it, what is the healing time for this?" and get a bitchy response "this is normal, you're not the professional". Me "correct, but that wasn't my question" to unhinged. I had one consultation for 45 mins the first time we met in May, I didn't see or speak to him again until the day of surgery 7 weeks later. A week before surgery I sent him an email confirming I wanted a cadaver not my cells and why. Never heard from him. In the 20 mins I saw him before surgery he was still belittling and name calling me to change my mind. I was giving him gace thinking he was joking around, and doing liability checking. As soon as he was done, I told him about my other knee having sharp pain, for preventative care. Can we talk about my MCL "nope" is all I got. 

As I was pressing with logic and reasoning "I do need to know what this pain is for preventative care for my other knee, and If the cadaver fails you will want to take it from the exact place and we should ...." interrupted "i'll look at it while i'm in there." "ok, and my lcl, meniscus, and what about the fracture?" "I already said yes" 

First 3 days were rough because I did not do well with aniestia and vomiting for days and started getting different pain all over my body. I read the post op notes. Notes for acl procedure were in there. Lcl normal, meniscus normal, that's it, nothing on MCL. Day 7 was PT appointment was HELL, pain meds make me sick, and my surgery knee was the only thing not hurting. my scalp was on fire, elbows stiff and numbing, sharp dull pain in my abdomen. I told her this isn't normal and I need answers. Chopped 13 inches of hair because of migraines more if the lady would have let me.

14 days out I was scheduled to meet the PA not the surgeon, and I proactively brought in my bloodwork, my labs. MRI screenshots (because they still hadn't been released to me...) I also realized he never looked at my Xray and I saw another fracture I wasn't familiar with. So he would compare his video with my notes. To my surprise he came in (alone) I was relieved, he was not so happy. I let him do his examination, then started telling him about my weird pain, eyes burning, migraines scalp, I started giving him my bloodwork showing him my swollen hands. Dead stopped me and said this is all normal. That's when it started going south. I said "Normal isn't a measurable diagnosis when it's subjective without facts and contradictory when used to classify both injures and non-injureds." This is when he flipped shiiiiiiit. He hit me with "I don't know if you have a mental disorder and just need to talk to someone because I'm not doing this with you, and I better not hear about you wasting PT's time on any of this again.". As soon as he said that I wasn't asking him anymore, because now I understood he is purposely keeping things from me. Immediately stopped him "Or what? I'm asking the correct person for accurate answers, and I'd be very careful with defamatory statements like that. You are failing to diagnose tangabley about my health and what? And you think you are qualified to anything out of your scope? You don't want to play that game with me. If you don't want to answer the question, let's just watch the surgery video"  

"There's no video, Here."  Hands me 6 pages. I'm trying to stay calm because I have no idea if this is my knee, an elbow, or at best my ACL nothing else, I don't know if they are in order. I have 35 phones, numbered 1-35 without timestamps or notes. He's ready to snap so Im being strategic. I asked if he took a fluid sample, to which he said "I never do, if you want tests I'm not going to do that, you can figure it out with your primary." bringing up mental health again. I was on the 3rd page and was able to get some barring of the little photos, and asked "Is that my meniscus root? Is this posterior or anterior? it didn't look connected". HE NEVER ANSWERED. Instead called me a conspiracy theorist, and stormed out.


13:41 UTC


How can someone have 2 sry genes in 2 different locations

I’m having trouble figuring out the first rs it seems to be a mutation on the Y chromosome, but it seems to also be like a cancellation if that makes sense. I’m a noob this is me trying to learn, I’ll be forever curious and always ignorant, I’m not trying to start a war just find more resources to learn from, Ty and have a wonderful day.

16:20 UTC


Anyone have information about a weird mutation?

I’m not sure if this is the right place, I’m trying to find out more information on a specific mutation

16:15 UTC


Quarter korean

Wait so Im 1/4 korean, but look more korean then my father?

1 Comment
19:15 UTC


Poor Metabolizer question.

I'm doing research from a pharmacokinetic genotype test and I had "poor metabilizer" for CYP2C19 and CYP2D6. (Also had "intermediate response" for SLC6A4 on tge Pharacodynamic test) From my research I've really just learned that for CYP2C19 I shouldn't take Clopidogrel, and for SLC6A4 it can affect my serotonin.

My question is basically is the poor metabolism result a problem or a "red flag"? Is it something that could relate to my mental health or any other health problems? Or does it only just mean I have a different genotype?

05:48 UTC


What is an intron variant?

Hi. I have an intron variant of my CDKL5 gene. I don’t have CDKL5 deficiency disorder, but I still wonder, do I have a mutation (like one that could cause a condition) or do I not?

20:21 UTC


Can you get a autosomal recessive gene if it’s heterozygous?

I got some genetic test results and I’m really confused by them. Does it being a Germline mutation make a difference?

15:23 UTC


Eye genes

My dad has brown eyes My mom has blues eyes I have blues eyes My sister has green eyes How is this possible

01:07 UTC


Are there any similarities between me and my uncle?

04:24 UTC


What ethnicity is mainly associated with thin wavy hair in men particularly

01:48 UTC


Man i got all the bad genes athsma & allergies i really am a garbage human being

13:21 UTC


Anyone know why one of my eyes are bloodshot and changing color

07:59 UTC


Transgenic mouse model (Arid1a flox /flox)

Hello all, I just have a question about Arid1a flox/flox mouse model. It's my first time leaning about this model so am a little bit confused and wondering if anyone can be of assistance.

After have admistered Tamoxifen, I now wish to analyse Arid1a expression to ensure that the recombination has occurred. Can I ask, which tissue or tissues would I collect and why? What technique can I use that will allow me to determine whether recombination as occurred? And what would I be looking for?

Finally, if I suspect Arid1a might have a tumour suppressor role in liver cancer, what would I expect to occur in the mouse model if recombination is achieved?

Thanks in advance

02:11 UTC


Human Genome Project Reference

Hi everyone, I'm writing a literature review for my master's program and I want to mention that the human body is estimated to have 20,00 genes. However, I need to cite a publication as my reference, but I can only find info on this from sites like they NY Times. I tried looking all around the human genome project's own webpage but I still can't find anything.... Does anyone know how I can find a proper scientific reference to cite the estimated # of human genes? Thanks in advance :)

23:54 UTC


Can somebody splice my DNA with a vampire bats so I can become man bat but with a functional brain

09:43 UTC


Slc6a4 genotype c/c

Question because idk where else to look,I've looked everywhere and can't get an answer. My idgenetix test says that for SLC6A4 [NM_001045.4:c.-1760C>T] I have the c/c genotype but everyone else talks about s/s vs l/l and I'm wondering if c is short or long?? If anyone knows please lmk thanks

06:26 UTC

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