/r/biology

Photograph via snooOG

A place to discuss all things biology! We welcome people and content from all related fields.

Welcome to /r/Biology!

A place to discuss all things biology! We welcome people and content from all related fields. Feel free to share the latest news, discuss relevant content, show off your latest publication, or ask for help on anything from career choices or to ask about recent biology research.

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We have self-serve user flair. Pick flair representing your favorite biological field of interest. You don't have to be an expert in it. If you don't have a favorite genre of biology, consider "general biology" or "bio enthusiast". If you want something off-list, you can change the flair text yourself.

Link Flair

Reminder: Label your submissions with with the appropriate link flair when submitting them.

Rules
  • no ID requests; do not ask the sub to identify something in a photo or video
  • no trolling
  • no spamming (ie. posting tons to links to the same website)
  • no hate speech or bigotry
  • no personal attacks
  • quality control: posts and comments are subject to removal if they do not fit the sub's purpose
  • no homework posts
  • no anti-vaxxers or covid-19 deniers
  • no medical questions
  • Health or medical questions should be submitted to /r/AskDocs
  • Health or medical articles can be submitted to /r/health
  • no conspiracy theories
  • no posts about religion
  • no surveys or polls
  • do not ask this sub to participate in research studies or academic surveys
  • Disclaimer: The information provided in the comments section does not, and is not intended to, constitute professional or medical advice; instead, all information, content, and materials available in the comments section are for general informational purposes only.
  • Guidelines for the media
  • You can read the sub's rules here.
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/r/biology

3,824,738 Subscribers

5

what job can i get related to biology without a degree

i plan on getting a bachelors in biology and i was just wondering what jobs would look good to get hired in biology once i get my degree! if there are any thanks : )

3 Comments
2024/03/26
02:37 UTC

6

Can women form a biological maternal bond with an animal?

So it’s well known that women usually get some sort of hormonal bond to their babies due to pregnancy and birth. The maternal instinct I guess. But is it possible for a woman to have a “hormonal” connection which results in a maternal like bond with a pet with a dog or cat?

For reference, I am a childless woman and my cat is very important to me. The things I would do for that fat ball of lard. And she is just cuter than any baby, which is something I’ve heard Mothers say. Or at least I’ve heard about mothers who have just given birth, being almost blinded by the hormonal connection that they just view the baby as really cute even in its slimy state.

So is it possible that I or any woman, could form some sort of maternal bond to an animal? Like can the brain get confused and just subconscious view the animal has a biological child? I’ve been thinking about this forever

13 Comments
2024/03/26
01:22 UTC

8

I’ve got my first interview for a laboratory job at a university tomorrow

It’s been 2 years since I graduated college and I feel like I can’t remember any of the stuff I’ve learned what kind of things would be expected of me in such an interview? Should I be cramming as much stuff as I can or just go in open and honest?

6 Comments
2024/03/26
00:22 UTC

2

A question for my biology/pathogens people

Can you get HIV from cracked/split skin if it comes in contact with, say saliva with HIV+ blood in it; or if someone with HIV+ blood in their mouth kisses cracked split skin?

Sorry if this is a bad question to ask, but I appreciate any solid answers.

For context, I used to work at a senior home and would often bus dirty silverware. My skin would often crack or split from washing them all of the time.

29 Comments
2024/03/25
23:28 UTC

2

Is every white tissue in animal fat?

Whenever I cut leanest meat there are still lines, thin layers of white tissue that's quite rough. I wonder what tissue is that and of what is it composed of.

6 Comments
2024/03/25
19:24 UTC

121

Why did almost every creature evolve to only have two ears?

I was pondering this whilst listening to a random YouTube video. Why on Earth do humans and other creatures across different classes of animals like most mammals, fish, amphibians, and the like only evolve to have 2 ears?

100 Comments
2024/03/25
17:53 UTC

4

Do grad programs care which physics I take?

I'm an undergrad prepping my next semester schedule. My options are applied physics or physics without calculus. Does it matter which I take? I want to pursue a grad degree in genetics or computational bio

10 Comments
2024/03/25
17:04 UTC

5

Biology thesis examples

Hello, I just want to have an idea of a what a Master's thesis in biology/biomed sciences looks like. I applied for an M.S. degree in Physiology in the U.S. and would appreciate to see what it takes to do one (still haven't decided if I should do a thesis or non thesis).

If you could share links of grad students thesis in the field I would highly appreciate it.

Thanks 🙏

8 Comments
2024/03/25
09:13 UTC

6

Electrons in photosynthesis

Heyy, I‘ve got a question about the electrons in photosynthesis, I hope you can understand what I mean, I’m not a native speaker.

The electrons that originated from photosystem I are used to change NADP+ to NADP+ H+ with NADP+ Reductase and H+. But what exactly do the electrons do? Do they just offer the energy? I ask because there also is the cyclic electron transfer, where the electrons from photosystem I are also "used". So they can’t be used up while they change NADP+. As far as I know the same electrons are used for both. Edit: I meant photosystem I

5 Comments
2024/03/25
08:21 UTC

10

Computer biology?

Im beginning my third year in biology now and my desire for med school is fast plummeting (mostly a result of mediocre grades.) After a quick search on indeed for biology jobs, I was reminded of the abysmal pay. Seriously, some of my friends in their first year of working in CS have wages surpassing 10+ years in biology (they are starting at $30-40!). Knowing med school may not be for me and not wanting to live off 50k a year with the chance of reaching 90k in 10 years. Is there a way I can shift my major from just bio into something more tech related and marketable? I do not want to outright switch to cs for time and money reasons + few overlapping courses. I will still try my hardest for med school (maybe optometry) but would like a nice fall back in the (very) likely case of no acceptance. Thanks.

7 Comments
2024/03/25
06:08 UTC

1

Masters in Biology or PGCE?

I (F24-Malaysia) am a recent bachelor's Graduate in Biology and worked a corporate job as a Sustainability Consultant, a corporate job. After 6 months of the job, I felt depressed and miserable as I felt that the field was not suited for me.

So I decided to quit my corporate job to pursue a Postgraduate Diploma in Education for 1 1/2 years. I love teaching and the thought of sharing knowledge makes me feel very fulfilled. And being involved in student development is something I look forward to. I was aiming to become a Teacher or an A-level educator.

I’m not quite keen on becoming a lecturer because I feel that it is very research-heavy in my opinion((chasing grants, needing to fulfill your KPI of publishing several articles a year, doing research projects, etc)) so the reason why I decided to not pursue a Masters program.

So here’s the problem, my family seems very against and unsupportive of me doing my Postgraduate Diploma in Education and wants me to pursue a Masters program instead. They feel as if I will have a lot more career options if I do my Masters. To be frank, I'm not interested in doing a Masters in Education. But I would love to do a Masters in Zoology/Botany. But then again, if I do so, wouldn’t that make my career options limited as well? I don't think there are a lot of career options for that field here in my country😅😂 so now I'm hella confused about what to do.

I would appreciate it if anyone could share your opinions/thoughts on this or maybe share your experiences. Thank you so much🥺

2 Comments
2024/03/25
03:43 UTC

14

What is the word to describe the phenomenon of circadian rhythms?

Ok, you know how there are types of bird feet like syndactyl and pamprodactyl, and both of those can be classified as dactyly? You could say, “what dactyly is a trogon?”

When referring to sleep patterns, what is the word used to describe the terms as a whole? The word that things like diurnal and cathermeral would fall under. If you’re asking what time of the day a sloth is awake you would say, “what (blank) is a sloth?”

26 Comments
2024/03/25
03:13 UTC

2

Further factors to diverse skin coloration other than adaption?

Why don't Native-Alaskans have pale skin despite living in a cold climate? How do they get enough vitamin D from the sun? Also, considering the constant migration of different races to new regions, such as North America, is it possible for skin color and features to continue evolving beyond what we currently have?

11 Comments
2024/03/25
02:49 UTC

4

Paleoanthropologist Dr. Steven Churchill on Homo naledi, Australopithecus sediba, and Human Evolution

0 Comments
2024/03/25
01:07 UTC

1

Plant or leaves fatigue?

Hi! Its been a couple of years since i ve read about themodynamics in plants so the last paper i read about its how leaves are stressed by artificial lights, basically 24/7 they are constantly in light or heat so how they evolve or adapt mechanics to tolere this system in cities or places that have 24/7 lights?

3 Comments
2024/03/25
00:01 UTC

0

Help for a Bioinformatics Project

I'm trying to find a value that proves that a specific miRNA will bind to an mRNA sequence. For example, an affinity value, or a delta g for free energy. Are there any bioinformatic tools anybody is aware of that could give me something like this?

4 Comments
2024/03/24
23:01 UTC

44

What courses will benefit me when pursuing biology?

I’m only fourteen right now, but i’m sure that I want to be a biologist. It’s been my favorite subject all my life, I adore it. I want to spend my life doing something I love, and learning about this is what I love.

I don’t know what college I want to go to, or what courses (if any) to take now to benefit me when I eventually do go somewhere. I don’t know what to do regarding the future, but I know this is something I want, I just have to map the rest out.

Does anyone have any advice? What courses should I take? Are there any colleges I should look into? Clubs, extracurriculars? What can I do to set myself up for success as an adult?

edit; thank you guy for so many responses in such a short amount of time. I really appreciate all the answers <:)

44 Comments
2024/03/24
22:15 UTC

4

Fun simulation of natural selection

I used this free simulation once in a lecture to a HS biology class to illustrate the impact of certain variables on animals in the wild and it went surprisingly well. It's easier to try the simulation yourself than to explain it, but suffice to say that you are given a population of bunnies with which you can assess the impacts of certain environmental and genetic variables (e.g., predators, food, weather, mutations). In addition to being entertaining, it also shows how these changes can be displayed graphically (e.g., histograms). And it's an activity that students (and curious biologists) can enjoy on their own.

Link: https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulations/natural-selection

PS The simulation is provided by PhET, courtesy of the University of Colorado Boulder, which also offers numerous other simulations of phenomenon in biology, chemistry, and physics, to aid in student learning

0 Comments
2024/03/24
20:09 UTC

0

Seeking Advice on internship opportunities

Hello, I am a student in bioengineering and aspire to work in applied genetic engineering for the environment.

I need to complete a 6-month internship, and I have two options, but due to my lack of experience, I'm unsure which one would provide me with the most skills and expertise for working in the environmental field.

On one hand, there's an internship in a laboratory focusing on microalgae and biofuels to optimize lipid production (I'm particularly interested in biofuels). On the other hand, there's the opportunity to develop a biofilm model in a bioreactor for water treatment in a company.

Thank you in advance for your assistance!

P.S.: I've already completed an internship related to microalgae in a laboratory.

1 Comment
2024/03/24
15:30 UTC

16

Question about Aging

Hello, we know that the world of science is working together with many fields such as nanotechnology, robotics and cell therapies. In the coming years, with the increase in success in these fields, it is certain that developments in the field of artificial intelligence will increase. Do you think that the world of science will find an anti-aging treatment/drug in the fields of anti-aging, molecular biology and similar fields?

23 Comments
2024/03/24
15:21 UTC

0

Help with trace files!

Hi all,
I am prefacing this by saying that I have done my homework in regards to the question I'm about to ask; I've exhausted all avenues in which I am confident would work, and some which I was unsure would.
Let me explain; I have been part of a practical where we investigated the effect of Ribosome Binding Sites on GFP production in DS941 by transforming the DS941 with a variety of plasmids containing varying Ribosome Binding Sites. The practical went wonderfully and everyone else got their sequences back to be analysed... except me! The company which handled the sequencing of the various colonies which had their plasmid extracted for sequencing, has sent back trace files in the format .ab1. Initially I thought this would not be a problem, I would just open them in ApE like I did for my undergrad dissertation... except when I tried opening them on ApE the files refused to play nice. Not even an error would occur and I would be left with a blank window. I retrieved the trace files from my undergrad and they opened fine in ApE, so I thought this must be an issue with ApE and whatever software was used to create the trace file for my plasmid RBS sequence. No issue, I open up SnapGene Viewer and try it in there. SnapGene recognises the files, however it also refuses to open them and does not provide me with an error message or any sort of detail. I tried a few apps from GitHub that claimed to open trace files and nothing. I then got more granular and opened both the file from my dissertation and my plasmid RBS file in TextEdit - it appears to me that there is a lot of data missing, but I am not an expert when it comes to sequencing software and the hassles of that.
I came here to ask for your help. There is definitely data in the files, but there is no app willing to read this. I apologise for any inconvenience. I looked up if this may be an operating system issue, however it appears not but I will list what I'm running, and have been for the last few years.
Macbook with MacOS
I hope someone here can help me with this issue, as my tutor is just as dumbfounded since he was also sent the files in a broken state from the company that sequenced them.
Cheerio, and thank you :)
If anyone wishes to look at the file(s) I will send it on request.

6 Comments
2024/03/24
15:06 UTC

76

Why do nucleotides exist free in the cytoplasm for DNA replication rather than forming hydrogen bonds with their complimentary partners?

Probably a silly question, I’ve searched and only found answers to how nucleotides are synthesised for replication rather than why they actually exist and single nucleotides?

Only have a basic education on biology I’m studying a degree later in the year, but just don’t understand why they wouldn’t form hydrogen bonds with other free nucleotides (maybe they do???) but have more of an affinity to bonds with nucleotides in the dna strands instead?

17 Comments
2024/03/24
14:43 UTC

3

Structure of butterfly wings

I have been reading some papers on the optical properties of butterfly wings. I am a physicist and have trouble understanding the structure (i.e the cross section) of the wings. They seem to have a membrane that as I understand is made of chitin and chitosan mainly. This membrane is covered in scales which are also made of chitin. What is cuticle, which I keep reading about? How does cuticle relate to the other parts? Do you have any idea of a source to see a diagram?

Thank you.

2 Comments
2024/03/24
09:11 UTC

16

what comes first in the development of the embryo flesh or bones ?

and also does the cartalage count as a bone

28 Comments
2024/03/24
08:19 UTC

71

Why are there so many more insects than arachnids, both living today and in the fossil record?

There is just over a million known species of insects compared to just over one hundred thousand known species of arachnids. Estimates of total species of insects are anywhere between 3 and 8 million, where as estimates for arachnids don't exceed two million.

In the fossil record, the same pattern holds up. In the paleobiology database, there are 51,482 occurrences of insects compared to a mere 3,822 occurrences of arachnids.

What's the deal here? All the reasons given for high insect abundance and species richness like small size, fast generation times, utilization of microhabitats, etc apply just as well to arachnids, especially mites. So what's the deal here? Is this discrepancy something actually real or just massive sampling bias? And if it is real, what's causing it?

51 Comments
2024/03/24
06:39 UTC

1

Has any work been done looking into deep sea gigantism in prehistoric species?

Was just looking to see if there was any news regarding the colossal squid, and the thought came: if squid are reaching these sizes now, how much larger could they have been in the past? And that goes for any of the ocean dwelling fauna. I’m aware that the soft bodies of squid typically don’t fossilize well, but has any research or discoveries been made regarding prehistoric deep sea gigantic species? Even research or info regarding speculation or approximation of what species could have existed or looked like would be appreciated. And of course if any species have already been discovered let me know. Thanks.

1 Comment
2024/03/24
05:25 UTC

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