Photograph via snooOG

Where evolution meets science fiction and art.

Speculative Evolution (also called Speculative Biology and Speculative Zoology) is the envisioning of fictional, but scientifically possible creatures that could have existed on an alternate Earth, or might actually exist somewhere on another planet or in the deep sea.

Ever wondered what lifeforms might exist under the ice on Europa at this very moment? Or how life might have evolved if that cataclysmic asteroid impact 65 million years ago never wiped out the dinosaurs? If so, you're at the right place.

Welcome to the Speculative Evolution subreddit! This sub is for images, discussion, and articles about life forms that could have existed in a different world. Speculative organisms may be from the future, an alternate timeline, or alien planets.

Speculative maps and landscapes, and concepts relating to speculative evolution as a whole, are also permitted.

The content of this sub is a combination of biology, sci-fi, paleontology, astrogeology, and artistic creativity. When posting art, please include the name of the artist in the title if it's available.

Feel free to cross-post any submissions from this sub!

r/SpeculativeEvolution Rules

1. Follow Reddit site rules and Reddiquette

You are required to abide by Reddit site rules and Reddiquette. Depending on severity, infractions may result in a ban. This includes but is not limited to:

  • Do not harass, bully, or make threats of violence for any reason

  • Do not engage in spamming, vote manipulation, or ban evasion

  • Respect individual privacy

  • Do not impersonate others

  • Label graphic content as such

2. Be respectful

Observe the following:

  • Critique constructively

  • Ask to critique before doing so (outside of posts specifically flaired "Seeking Critique")

  • Do not speak of or to others in a disrespectful manner, regardless of if they are present on the subreddit or not

  • Do not attempt to solicit others publicly

  • Do not incite drama or witch hunts; attempt to work out differences in private and alert the mod team if you need assistance

3. Submissions and discussion must relate to speculative evolution

This subreddit is focused on the speculative evolution genre. Similar content is allowed if relevant, such as (but not limited to):

  • Paleontology

  • Extinct animal reconstructions

  • Portrayals of aliens in fiction

  • Concept art

  • Speculative geography and maps of fictional planets

If content does not clearly relate to these, please provide a rationale when posting. Sexually explicit and fetish content are not permitted under any circumstances.

4. Crediting the artist(s) is required

When posting other people's art, credit the artist in the title and use a relevant non-OC flair. The name of a project alone is insufficient credit. If posting a gallery of works produced by multiple artists, please append a comment with a link to the direct sources of each work on your post, such as the artists' website, or Behance/DeviantArt/ArtStation page.

When posting original content [OC], you do not need to do this.

5. Plagiarism is prohibited

Plagiarism is the act of copying the work of another individual and claiming it as your own without proper attribution to the original creator. Sharing the works of another artist and attempting to pass them off as your own, publicly posting traced drawing, and claiming a project to be your own are all forms of plagiarism. If found guilty of plagiarism, the offense is grounds for a **permanent ban.

6. Comment descriptions on original content [OC] image posts are mandatory

You are required to include a description of your artwork when using flairs marked as original content [OC]. If text is present on your submission, as in a diagram, simply copy that into the comment. The automoderator will approve your post once the description has been added. When sharing non-OC artwork, a comment description is not necessary, but you must still credit the artist and use the correct flair.

7. Refrain from low effort posts and comments

You are expected to put effort into your posts and comments. The following are prohibited on the grounds of being low effort:

  • Claiming plausibility/implausibility without an in-depth rationale

  • Fantasy creature designs without hypothetical biology, anatomy, or ecology

  • Asking how fictional creature designs could evolve without attempting to speculate yourself beforehand

  • Shitposting

8. Short posts should be directed to the Weekly Discussion & Announcements thread

The following post types should not be posted independently outside of the dedicated weekly thread:

  • Project announcements without content

  • Project server links

  • Seed organism or planet condition lists

  • Short descriptions of organisms

To find the active Weekly Discussion & Announcements thread, please follow this link and select the most recent thread.

9. Memes and non-OC inspiration crossposts are only permitted on certain days

Memes are permitted only on Mondays starting at 0:00 UTC; please use r/specevojerking outside of this time window.

Non-OC crossposts meant to provide inspiration are permitted only on Tuesdays starting at 0:00 UTC; speculative evolution content from other subreddits such as r/worldbuilding and original content depicting real world phenomena (using the [OC] Inspiration flair) are always allowed at any time.

Do not attempt to circumvent this rule by assigning an inappropriate flair.

10. Flair your posts correctly

The burden of labeling your post correctly falls to you; please take responsibility and carefully chose your flair prior to posting. Incorrectly flaired posts will be subject to removal. A list of flairs and their intended functions can be found on this Wiki page.

11. Limit submissions to 3 per day

You may post as many as three submissions per day. This is not a hard limit, but is enforced when an individual appears to be monopolizing the subreddit feed.

Spec Evo Resources

Community FAQ

Web Resources

Speculative Evolution article on Wikipedia

Speculative Evolution Wikia

Speculative Evolution Forum

Tetrapod Zoology

Furahan Biology

Speculative Evolution DeviantArt

Spec-Evo Projects Catalogue | Community Document, maintained by u/RustyyOnions

Notable Completed/Paused Projects

Sagan 4

Snaiad: Life on Another World by CM Kosemen

Speculative Dinosaur Project

The Amphiterra Project by u/Citysaurus_ART

Notable Ongoing Projects

Alien Biospheres by Biblaridion

Antarctic Chronicles by u/Risingmagpie

Gaianima by u/HermitHubby

Phtanum B by u/SteveMobCannon

Nijin-Konai by u/nqwebasaurus

Rhynia by BobsicleG & u/Romboteryx

Serina: A Natural History of the World of Birds by Sheather888

Sol'Kesh Bestiary by u/Daedonas


After Man: A Zoology of the Future by Dougal Dixon

The New Dinosaurs: An Alternative Evolution by Dougal Dixon

Man After Man: An Anthropology of the Future by Dougal Dixon

Expedition by Wayne Barlowe

All Tomorrows by C.M. Kosemen

Future Evolution by Peter Ward

The World of Kong: A Natural History of Skull Island by Weta Workshop

The Snouters: Form and Life of the Rhinogrades by Gerolf Steiner

Last and First Men by Olaf Stapledon


The Future Is Wild

Alien Planet



85,650 Subscribers


Why are there no aquatic fungi?

At least none that I’ve ever heard of. If there are some then please correct me.

14:17 UTC


1D Cross-Section (Organs)

1 Comment
13:56 UTC


Thoughts on the soft bodied, bone bodied and steal bone bodied animals in my world?

Whilst I was on a walk with myself,I was think how the animals in the alien biosphere I am making are extremely small, the tallest animals only being like 10 feet in height. It’s because their worlds gravity is five times that of earths, gravity would make the animals smaller as a result. But then I started thinking, this world was very similar to venus before being taken as a moon by a migrating gas giant, because it’s star is a Red Dwarf it would have been lashed by billions of years, so it probably would have had a lot more mass previously, and so this world would probably have a lot more iron as a result as a decent portion of it would’ve been blown away by its star. And also, because it is larger than earth it would have significantly more eruptions, and having more iron on the world as a whole , and all the chemical composition in the seas. So I thought of the life would evolve and get onto land, obviously the first animal that would go onto land would probably be animals that would be analogous to insects we have on Earth who can get to a certain size, but because of their body shapes and have a body works they can only get so big before their industry crush themselves. then I started going on about how another animal lives would evolve an internal skeleton, probably made out of the same stuff we have on Earth except maybe with a little bit more iron content? But then, later on after several millions of years of iron exposure in the seas maybe a new life in that incorporates all of the iron content, and so evolves to incorporate more iron into a skeleton, and this group of animals could succeed much greater heights. Thanks to all this iron content in their bodies. And their bones, being of a similar strength to steal in our world, and maybe even plant life are also incorporates that, and how these groups for a nucleotide of environments that can reach hundreds of feet tall, despite the worlds crushing gravity. Thoughts?

1 Comment
11:16 UTC


How would the fauna of Earth develop in future, if human suddenly disappear around 14-15th centuries, so no massive faunal and floral exchanges caused by colonialism?

1 Comment
11:09 UTC


What would be the Evolution of the Catbus from My Neighbour Totoro?

Okay, so, I was thinking about what could actually be the evolution of this characteristic anime character and the best I could think of is that it would be a sort of mammal with air sacks in it to carry cargo from one place to another (maybe an original strategy to stockpile food through great distances) that eventually was domesticated in order to offer free transportations for humans through rough terrain. I'm thinking that because of so many sacks it might be a Marsupial or something alike, although the amount of arms makes me think that it is still a tetrapod in order to be a mammal, so the rest of the limbs are actually evolved from protruding ribcages, though I can't think on much of a use for it except maybe gliding short distances to better move around the environment, as we see it jumping up and down everywhere, but that's where my thoughts reach its zenith. What do you think?

10:22 UTC


Speculative Evolution of Greek Daemones?

Okay, first of all, I'll try to put in as much effort in this post as I can, although for this specific topic I seriously have no idea how to reiterate further than this; I'm building a Speculative Evolution Project where Greek Myths and Creatures are real and where things like the Chimera, Manticore, Cerberus, Harpies, Sirens, Nymphs, even Talking Trees, they're all real and scientifically explained as creatures that just exist in our own world, and since this project is still part of a fantasy series I'm building I don't have much of a problem with the use of magic, although I'm trying to mostly avoid it for building my species.

So far I'm doing alright in my research, but the thing is that although I have a lot to build from, still, I don't think Greek Mythos gives me as many mythical creatures to biologically reason upon as I would like, as I tend to actually have a few hundred species in my other related projects, so then I thought it could be awesome to make spec evo upon even the olympian gods or daemones (lesser gods, such as Cacodaemones, Agatodaemones, Daemones Criseus, Daemones Argireus, etc), but the thing is that I'm having a lot of trouble coming up with any actual spec evo species for these guys, although I would really love some suggestions that could guide me into doing that more effectively, could you give me any tips?

I'm not asking you guys to do this work for me (although any examples could really help), but I'm rather asking for tips and guidance on how to proceed on such an endeavor and what types of resources I could you to succeed in my idea. Also, here is a list on Daemones: https://www.theoi.com/greek-mythology/personifications.html

Thank you very much for reading my post and any honest suggestions are much appreciated! And have a nice day!

1 Comment
10:15 UTC


project ultimacene drug parasite worm one of the ███████ creatures made by the nature company

During the two decades of healing the brothers specifically brother Bernado who was in charge of looking over Mexico and the rest of South America, was dealing with the Cartels in order to wipe their influence forever. One of the ways Bernado eliminated the Cartels was by targeting the very crops themselves. So the nature company using, the technology Turpis, decided to create a genetically altered creature that can eat all of the drug crops to endangerment. Using dna structures of hornworm, cutworm, root maggots, ███████, ███████, and ███████. This created a white looking worm which size is similar to a small earth worm with small legs and a mandible that would eat everything that is related to addictive drug plants. They reproduce quickly, even reproducing asexually. When there is no other plants to eat, they all die off. They don't affect other plants and in fact can be juicy morsels for animals like birds.

They were a success, thousands of eggs spread across plantations via agents of the CDA(Cartel, Disrupter, Agency) in which entire plantations of cocaine, weed, mariuana, and more were destroyed. In fact they were too successful to the point where all of the drug plants became endangered.

The drug parasite worm is one of the many reasons of the downfall of the American cartels by Bernado and these worms would be used in other areas as well until it didn't become a major problem anymore. There are no live specimens but there are some in vials located at the Falkland island nature company base in sector ███████.

criticism and questions are welcomed.

09:25 UTC


Idk where else to ask this so sorry in advance

How do different gases and/or quantity of gases affect the color of the sky? Like... I just don't get it. Someone explain this in a way that my stupid little pea brain can understand cus Google isn't helping. If you can, start from the beginning please-

05:14 UTC


How can Illithids be realistic?

23:50 UTC


HI, this is the beginning of life on by planet Juno part 1

Life began not in the oceans not in the land but in the skies in this world in a special layer that has wind currents that are basically the ocean but in the air. Life began in simple micro organisms but then advanced into creatures called hand Grabbers that used they large tentacles to grab microorganisms and became so specialized that they eventually became gloved ands with mouths but before that several one day fell out of the sky to look for a new food source and found the land where there was plentiful micro organisms and so they evolved into the first trees named the Sweeping trees that had their tentacles as roots on land seven providing stability twenty sweeping for microorganisms. This peacefully went on for about 85 Billion years until the Grabbers now outcompeted by the new forms that look strangely familiar dropped down into a infinite seeming rainforest world where they evolved into the Sweeper Stealers and had evolved their two front tentacles in rainforest removers these lovely creatures caused the first mass extinction on land named the Worst Extinction as it killed 99.9 % of all life the remaining ones where a species of creature called the Shard Grass a large long organism that remained in one place with primitive eyes and each a different colour (most unable to be seen by the human eye so they are seen as grey) they blew their spores at their chosen mate and hoped that smaller males didn't steal the spores to fertilize them out came several billion species over the course of 14 Billion years but then creatures began falling back through to their world and into this worlds skies twin sister the sea.

19:03 UTC


I technically started this trend so I figured I should make a meme

17:50 UTC


A Hlatlat diplomat and their Jamsoora translator

17:31 UTC


Some HD skewer boys for your viewing pleasure [DARWIN 4]

16:55 UTC


Speculative Bat Species

What do you think bats could evolve into? Some bats possess encephalization quotients near those of elephants and are very adept at communication between individuals. They also form into large groups of individuals and are very social creatures. They also possess more efficient and controlled flying than birds do. What niches do you think they could fill in a post-Anthropocene mass extinction?

04:03 UTC


What amphibians would survive in a hot house earth

What groups of frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and cecaelians would survive where run away green house gasses continued to expand in a the future. Would any manage to survive at all?

03:57 UTC


Seed worlds at some point:

01:57 UTC


Are there any speculative evolution projects, which have the scenario of future evolution of fauna, if humans never existed or didn’t impact Earth ecosystem as they did?

18:44 UTC


Archangel cladogram but with pictures, all art by Sheather888

16:17 UTC



I created a lifeform for an alien wizard's familiar in Pathfinder meant to use the statblock of a pig while having cephalopod-like traits, and realized I thought it sounded fairly plausible as a lifeform. Now I'm trying to flesh it out as an actual spec-evo project and figured I could use some help.

Optiswine originate from a planet where large land-dwelling creatures emerged relatively recently in comparison to Earth's evolutionary timeline, having followed equivalents to plants, fungi, insects, and crustaceans. The type species, Optisus rotundus, exemplifies the essence of the optiswine, resembling Earth's pigs in terms of size, shape, and ecological niche as omnivorous scavengers and grazers. While Optisus rotundus sticks near coastal regions, they otherwise thrive in a variety of terrestrial environments, adapting to their surroundings with remarkable efficiency.

To be expected in such creatures is that they have a digitigrade stance to help them nimbly maneuver through various terrains, swiveling pointed ears to aid them in communication and vigilance against potential threats, and an endoskeleton to protect their internal organs. They've even formed bony ridges along their backs to further aid in structural support and protection against predators and environmental hazards. Their skin is smooth and ranges from vibrant greens to deep blues and dark purples.

While an optiswine's candy coloring may be striking, what really set these animals apart from their earthly counterparts is the number of adaptations they've retained from their aquatic and amphibious ancestors. One such example is that their eyes are large and expressive, and have an organ similar to that of a tapetum lucidum to help them see in low-light conditions while providing a glow to their eyes when exposed to direct light. These eyes were such a prominent feature it even got them their name.

Their elongated snouts features a unique trait found in all Optisus and related clades, opposable sensory and grasping tentacles, providing them with exceptional dexterity and fine manipulation abilities. They use these to smell the air and ground for food, shuffling through the leaf litter and detritus for edible matter, then lift it into their mouth. Food is passed through a set of lips and into a strong beak which can crush and chop a variety of foods, ranging from plant matter to small invertebrates and carrion.

Optiswine are oviparous and ectothermic, often spending significant time basking in the sun on the shores, beaches, and open areas of their homes to keep their body temperature up. During mating season, females bury their eggs in the warm sand, providing a stable and protected environment for incubation. Once hatched, the young dig themselves out with their tentacles, often getting a first meal of semi-aquatic invertebrates and beach-dwelling plant matter before making their way further inland, guided by their instincts and the cues of their surroundings.

15:33 UTC


Imagine this

As you bullsharks can survive in freshwater and sometimes make their way up the Mississippi. So what if a small group of bullsharks decided to stay in the Mississippi River.

At first I imagine they would mostly stay around the beginning of the River in Louisiana but eventually they start moving inland and grow a preference for fresh water. Then they split into a new species and spread throughout the interior of America. Since rivers and lakes are a lot more isolating than the open ocean speciation happens a lot more quickly with different sharks adapting to different environments. Maybe some will stay at the top of the food chain while others get shoved below.

15:11 UTC


Thoughts on my alien concept sketch?

Their world is a moon of a gas giant, the world itself was once a planet 5 times bigger than earth and was similar to Venus, but once it became a moon of the gas giant it got hit by asteroids and a moon, this made their world habitable. This being has three breath parts on its back that have protruding bone like structures to protect them, but in their culture it’s a sign of strength and beauty. They have four arms, the first two were initially for hunting and the other was eating, not they’re used for manipulation, their trunk like mouth acts similar to how a cone snails mouth works, but also can be used like an elephant’s trunk. They also have 5 eyes, the middle large one is used similar to humans sight, the other 4 help in inferred light, so they can mix the two together. They can also spit acid from their ass, think a skunk but instead of a nasty smell think nitric acid. They’re also 2 foot tall and are known for their peaceful but firm culture. They also have strong tattooing and fashion cultures I’ll be showing once I’ve drawn them. Thoughts guys?

14:57 UTC


Latepost Milky May | Day 16: Loudest sound - literally a few hours before humans do their peaceful coexisting thing

12:47 UTC


Rhynia: the Hagfisher

09:51 UTC


How do kinetosynthetic organisms harness energy?

In my setting, there's a planet that has extreme winds. I want to design organisms that can use this wind as an energy source, but I don't know how. How can I design a realistic kinetosynthetic organism?

08:09 UTC

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