Photograph via snooOG

A subreddit for anyone who wants to learn or help others learn Welsh.

Share anything here that you think could help in any way, shape or form to learn welsh.

This subreddit can also be used as a place to look for or offer help in learning the beautiful language that is Welsh.

Cewch chi rannu unrhyw beth yma rydych chi'n meddwl y gallai helpu pobl, mewn unrhyw ffordd, i ddysgu Cymraeg.

Gallwch chi ddefnyddio'r isredit hwn hefyd i gynnig neu i chwilio am gymorth wrth ddysgu'n hiaith brydferth ni.

See our wiki for more information on resources and other Welsh subreddits.

Gweler ein wici am ragor o wybodaeth am adnoddau ac isreditau Cymreig eraill.


16,978 Subscribers


Welsh message in my PhD thesis for my Dad

Hello, I am writing my PhD thesis and I would like to include a message in Welsh for my dad (he grew up speaking Welsh but I did not). It could be as simple as "to my mother and father", or it could be a reference to a particular welsh proverb or poem (if there is something appropriate!), what do you think? I would need help for the translation please.

1 Comment
13:23 UTC


Geirfa Ddefnyddiol Feunyddiol / Daily Useful Vocabulary

y rheswm dros siarad amdani - the reason for talking about it

hyrwyddwr (g) ll. hyrwyddwyr - promoter, facilitator

cymryd o ddifrif - to take seriously

sad - stable, firm, steady; dependable

pastai'r bugail - shepherd's pie

cyfeiriadaeth (b) - reference (act of referring to something)

difywyd - inanimate, non-living, lifeless

gofodol - spatial

cefnu (cefn-) ar - to turn one's back on, to forsake

dirprwyo (dirprwy-) - to deputize, to appoint a deputy; to act as a delegate, deputy or representative

07:26 UTC






cadw'n heini!

23:16 UTC


Can one tell me the conjugations of all irregular verbs in Welsh(the four)?

It is the best when it is interactive.

1 Comment
10:26 UTC


Is the learn Welsh mynediad (entry) all in Welsh?

As the title applies, the courses that learnwelsh.cymru do. I'm going to be doing the entry level after switching from foundation cause I realised I picked the wrong one after I went in person to a foundation class, and it was all in Welsh and everyone knew alot more than me lol. Just wondering if the mynediad (entry) level will be the same. The tutor teaching all in Welsh no English?


09:37 UTC


Geirfa Ddefnyddiol Feunyddiol / Daily Useful Vocabulary

gwangalon - faint-hearted, dispirited, despondent

gwangalonni (gwangalonn-) - to lose heart, to become discouraged; to discourage

s'dim eisiau - there's no need (De Cymru)

hynod o ffodus - exceptionally lucky

drosodd a throsodd (adf.) - over and over, again and again

metr (g) ll. metrau - metre (metric unit of length)

stabl (b) ll. stablau - stable (for horses)

llond trol o - a cartful, an abundance of, "a shed load of"

cadwyno (cadwyn-) (wrth) - to chain to

bipian (bipi-) - to bleep, to beep

06:56 UTC


Why does Welsh sound so "English"?

When people speak Welsh I can hear a strong English accent. Is it because English and Welsh co-evolved together and sound similar or is it because for most people Welsh is more like a second language after English. When a child moves to another country at a young age, they often (although not always) develop an accent when speaking their mother tongue even if they speak it at home with parents who have no accent. Could something like this have happened to Welsh speakers? Does anyone have recordings of people who spoke no English or almost no English?

02:03 UTC


Duolingo vs Babble

I am casually learning Welsh to connect with a bit of my family's culture. I'm currently using Duolingo (free version), but I've heard some good things about Babble. I wanted other learner's opinions on which is better, or a preference.

01:05 UTC


WWOTD: Masnach




Gender: Feminine



cadw'n heini!

23:16 UTC


Is the new course necessary on SaySomethingInWelsh?

So yesterday I started using SSIW and I enjoyed it SO MUCH. I did lesson 1 of the new course. Unfortunately though, I found out today the rest of the levels need to be paid for. Now, the old course seems to be entirely free, but when I'm on the page it suggests:

Please note: you are viewing an old version of our Welsh course.If you're just starting out, please start with the current version - click here to go to the main course.

Is this really necessary for the best results? Thanks in advance.

1 Comment
21:36 UTC


Pan wyt tin'n deall 99.5% ac mae dal yn rywbeth i ddsgu!

Gwrandewais i ar gogyddes yn dangos sut i wneud pastai'r bugail yma a dim ond rhai ddwy eilaid o'r darn methais i eu deall. Wrth wrando ar "mewnbwn dealladwy" mae llawer o bobl yn dweud does dim ots os nad wyt ti'n deall pob gair yn gyfan gwbl. Er mae gwirionedd wrth ddweud hynny dyma gyfle i ddysgu rhywbeth newydd i fi! - rhyw briod-dull neu ymadrodd tafodiadol efallai. Hefyd maen nhw'n mynnu'n gryf mae wastad modd deall popeth o'r cyd-destun a pan wyt ti'n methu, rhaid bod mai ti sy ar fai! Gwirion bost!

Mae'r cogyddes yn dweud rhwbeth fel "fedrwch chi'n curo o reseitiau syml traddodiadol" am 0:40

ac yna rhywbeth tebyg eto fel "dw i 'di curo o ychydig bach o 'grunch'" am 1:37

Beth yn union mae hi'n ei ddweud a beth mae hwn yn ei olygu? rhywbeth fel "hoffi"?

18:42 UTC


how accurate is google translate?

hello! i am new to learning welsh. i’ve been learning it for around two weeks so far. i have a question. occasionally i’ll go onto google translate to see what words are, and i noticed the spelling of words is different as to what i learned sometimes. for example: i learned when you say your name you put your name then dw i, but google translate spells it as ydw i. are both of these correct? any help is appreciated!

06:20 UTC


Hi! I have 4 more spots available in the super duolingo family plan. I am offering them for only €11 euro / $12 usd a year.

I just started a new family plan for me and my friend. Anyone can join. I accept paypal but I am open to another payment methods. First I will send you the invitation link and after that we can discuss the payment. I am also accepting monthly payment( €1 a month so it’s a €1 discount if you buy it annually). You can dm me or leave a comment here. Waiting for your message!

Edit: Please wait a bit if you see I don’t respond because I might be working and I can’t answer to you immediately. Thanks :)

00:05 UTC


WWOTD: Arwyddocaol




cadw'n heini!

23:16 UTC


New face to face conversation group - South East Wales

Here is a new opportunity for face to face Welsh conversation in Gwent starting next week. Contact me directly or follow the booking link to reserve a place..
Yn dechrau'r wythnos nesa, dyma gyfle newydd i siarad wyneb yn wyneb yng Ngwent. Neges ata i neu ddilyn y linc i archebu lle.


16:14 UTC


#Welsh Made Easy With #JenX: Dyma Becky! (Here is Becky!) [teach your #cat Welsh]

03:17 UTC


WWOTD: Lleddfu

To ease



cadw'n heini!

23:16 UTC


Welsh Grammar: Using Prepositions and Conjunctions - Defnyddio Arddodiaid a Chysyllteiriau

Choosing the right preposition can be difficult as there is is no one-to-one mapping of words or usage between languages, particularly for metaphorical figurative use. A mapping may be only partial in that, say, English on maps to Welsh ar in some instances but not all and vice-versa. This means that several Welsh prepositions may map to an English one for different uses. It is best to try to internalize Welsh patterns and metaphorical idiom here rather than trying to translate idiom and usage from English.

Here I list usage patterns for each preposition. I have included some uses where the words for prepositions are also used as conjunctions in adverbial phrases.

Dan, dros and drwy are mutated variants of tan, tros and trwy whose mutation has become fixed because tan, tros and trwy are so often used at the head of adverbial expressions where such a mutation occurs. However, tan is now usually until while dan is under.

Some prepositions are compounds with oddi - oddi ar, oddi wrth while others are formed from two elements that are split when conjugating e.g. ar ôl : ar ôl y gwaith, but ar dy ôl di, ar ei hôl hi.

Some verbnouns / verbs have a pattern where they are always used with a particular preposition (or a limited choice of others) and these can be learned as a compound pattern. Here the prepositions often have a metaphorical or figurative meaning and are not completely arbitrary.

Prepositions also have idiomatic usage in set phrases or formulas: mynd ati! bod wrthi, amdani!

Some prepositions conjugate (change endings for number and person) and some cause a mutation. I have noted this where relevant.

â (ag before vowels) - with (causes aspirate mutation)

(using implement / instrument)

torri â chyllell - to cut with a knife

ysgrifennu â phensil - to write with a pencil

gwneud â llaw - to make by hand

(having attribute or characteristic)

sydd â - having, who / that /which has

â gwallt hir - with long hair


dod â - to bring (come with)

mynd â - to take (go with)

(reciprocal action - with one another)

cwrdd â - to meet

cydymffurfio â - to conform to

cyffwrdd â - to touch

cyferbynnu â - to contrast with

cysylltu â - to connect

cymharu â - to compare to / with

cymodi â - to reconcile with

dygamod â - to reconcile with

siarad â - to speak to / with

priodi â - to get married to

uniaethu â - to identify with

ymladd â - to fight with

ymuno â - to join

ymweld â - to visit

(in connection with, concerning, regarding)

bod wedi arfer â - to be used to

peidio â - to stop doing

ymwneud â - to have to do with

ymyrryd â - to interfere with, to intervene

ynghlŷn â - in connection with, regarding

(failed or incomplete action)

methu â - to fail to

peidio â - to stop doing, to not do

tewi â sôn - to stop talking, to shut up, to be silent

(as in a comparison)

mor gyflym â / ag / na / nag - as fast as

cyn gynted â / ag - as soon as

yr un fath â - like, the same as

ac eithrio - except for (compound preposition)

ac eithrio fi / a'm heithrio - except for me

achos - because

o achos - because (compound preposition)

o dy achos di - because of you

allan - out

(movement out of space)

allan o - out of

(located outside of)

y tu allan i - outside (of)

am (conjugates, causes soft mutation)

(at a specific time)

am dri o'r gloch - at three o'clock

ar ddydd Llun - On Mondays

ar ddechrau'r wers - at the start of the lesson

cyrraedd am bedwar o gloch - to arrive at four o' clock

hwyl am y tro - bye for now

(for a (completed) period of time)

Bues i'n fyw yno am bum mlynedd. - I lived there for five years.

am faint? - for how long?

am bedair blynedd - for four years

aros am dri munud - to wait for three minutes

talu am chwe mis - to pay for six months (with regular payments)

(for a distance)

am dair milltir - for three miles

mynd yn syth am ddwy filltir - to go straight for two miles

(in exchange for)

prynu llyfr am chwe phunt - to buy a book for six pounds

tri potel am bum punt - three bottles for five pounds


gwneud rhywbeth am hwyl - to do something for fun


rhwymyn am ei phen hi - a bandage on her head (around, surrounding)

rhowch rwymyn am ei ben-glin - put a bandage around his knee

(expressing intention or wish)

beth dw i am wneud - what I'm going to do / what I want to do

Dw i am brynu crys newydd - I want to buy a new shirt

(expressing what a)

Am lais! - What a voice!

(idiomatic usage)

Ewch amdani - go for it!

(about, concerning, relating to)

barn am hyn - opinion about that

(in an expression of reason to introduce complement)

am y rheswm yna - for that reason

am hynny - because of that, therefore

am un peth - for one reason

To complete a verbnoun / verb

(reference to a third person, or something abstract like a fact, information, story)

aros am - to wait for

aros am y trên - to wait for the train

ceisio am - to apply for

cofio am - to remember (about) something

chwilio am - to search for

darllen am - to read about

darogan am - to predict, to portend

disgwyl am - to wait for, to expect

dweud am - to talk about

dysgu am - to learn about

galw am - to call for

gobeithio am - to hope for

gofalu am - to care for

gofyn am - to ask for

gofyn am help - to ask for help

gwybod am - to know about

hiraethu am - to long for

holi am - to enquire about

meddwl am - to think about

pryderu am - to worry about

siarad am - to talk about

sôn am - to talk about

ymbil am - to petition for

ysu am - to yearn for

ysgrifennu am - to write about

(in exchange for)

talu am - to pay for

cyfnewid am - to exchange for

newid am - to change for

prynu am - to buy for an amount

(towards with urgency)

rhedeg am y bws - to run for the bus

rhuthru am - to rush to

mynd am - to go for

(as a conjunction introducing adverbial clauses of reason)

am fod - since, because

am ei fod yn - as it is

am fod hi'n bwrw glaw - as it is / was raining

am iddo (fe) wenu mor serchus - as he smiled so lovingly

am fod golwg mor wael arni hi - as she looked so ill

ar - on (conjugates, causes soft mutation)

(on, upon a surface)

ar y bwrdd - on the table

ar y wal - on the wall

(idiomatic phrases)

enw ar - name for

esboniad ar - explanation of / for

ar ran - on behalf of, for

ar draws - across (spanning)

ar hyd - along, (all) throughout

ar hyd y nos - all through the night

ar draws - across

torri ar draws - to cut across, to interrupt

ar y cyfan - on the whole

ar hyn o bryd - at the moment

ar unwaith - at once

(quality, characteristic)

Mae arogl neis ar y ddiod - The drink smells nice

Mae lliw braf ar y ffrog hon - This dress has a nice colour

(diseases and emotions, abstract nouns)

mae annwyd arna i - I have a cold

mae'r frech goch arni hi - she has measles

(uncomfortable emotion or poor state)

mae angen arna i - I need

arswyd ar - horror

dyled ar - debt

mae dyled mawr arno fe - he owes a lot

faint sy arnoch? - how much do you owe?

Faint sy arna i i chi? - How much do I owe you?

eisiau ar - want, need

hiraeth ar - longing

ofn ar - fear

syched ar - thirst

bai ar - blame

cywilydd ar - shame

mae cywilydd arni hi - she is ashamed

(expressing a state)

ar gael - available

ar goll - lost

ar gau - closed

ar dân - on fire

ar werth - for sale

ar wahân - separate

ar fai - at fault, to blame

ti sy ar fai - you are to blame, it's your fault

ar fy mhen fy hun - on my own

(reference to a third person or subject)

cael gwared ar - to get rid of

craffu ar - to scrutinize

cynyddu ar - to make progress

dwli ar - to be infatuated with, to love, to be crazy about

edrych ar - to look at

elwa ar - to profit from

gwenu ar - to smile at

gwirioni ar - to be infatuated with, to be crazy about

gwrando ar - listen to

myfyrio ar - to consider, to contemplate

rhoi cynnig ar - to give something a try

sylwi ar - to notice

syllu ar - to stare at

tynnu ar - to draw from / upon

(expressing influence in a power dynamic)

achwyn ar - to complain about

aflonyddu ar - to harrass

amharu ar - to impair

apelio ar - to appeal to (plead with)

awdurdodi ar - to authorize

codi ofn ar - to frighten

dial ar - to take revenge on, to avenge

dibynnu ar - to depend upon

dylanwadu ar - to influence

effiethio ar - to affect

gweiddi ar - to shout at

gweddïo ar - to pray to

tarfu ar - to disturb

ymbil ar - to beg, to implore

ymosod ar - to attack

ar gyfer (compound preposition)

(in preparation for)

adolygu ar gyfer yr arholiad - to prepare for the exam

(to give to)

bwyd ar gyfer y plant - food for the children

llyfr ar ei chyfer hi - a book for her

ar ôl - after (compound preposition)

(following a person, time or event)

ar ei hôl hi - after her

ar ôl y dosbarth - after the class

ar ôl chwech o'r gloch - after six o'clock

ar ôl iddo fe adael - after he leaves / left

at (conjugates, causes soft mutation)

(motion towards, up to but not into)

dere ata i! - come to me!

mynd at y drws - to go to the door

mynd at / hyd at y goleudau - to go (up) to the lights

anfon llyfr at - to send a letter to a person

mynd at y meddyg - to go to the doctor

ysgrifennu at y cyngor - to write to the council

tuag at - towards

hyd at - up to (an amount or a specific time), towards an inanimate location

cerdded hyd at y glwyd - to walk to the gate

(in preparation for)

adolygu at yr arholiad - to revise for the exam

cadw pren at y gaeaf - to save wood for the winter

paratoi at - to prepare for

(towards a cause)

at achos - for a cause

cyfrannu at - to contribute to

cyrannu tuag at ddatrys y broblem - to contribute to solving the problem

codi arian at elusen - to raise money for a charity

(for a purpose)

addas at - suitable for

at beth? - for what use / purpose?

at beth mae'r peth 'ma? - what's this thing for?

(in direction of)

agosáu at rywbeth - to approach something

anelu at - to aim at / to

pwyntio at - to point at / to

(figurative direction towards)

apelio at - to appeal to (be attractive to)

arwain at - to lead to

cyfeirio at - to refer to; to direct to

denu at rywbeth - to attract to something

dwyn sylw at - to draw attention to

edrych ymlaen at - to look forward to

gogwyddo at - to incline to, to lean towards

troi at - to turn to

tynnu sylw at - to draw attention to

parch at - respect for / towards

casineb at - hatred towards

(reaction to something)

cymhwyso at - to adjust to

rhyfeddu at - to marvel at, to be amazed by

synnu at - to be surprised at / by

(something distributed)

rhoi at - to give to

ychwanegu at - to add to

(idiomatic use)

mynd ati - to get to it

cyn - before (in time), preceding (does not conjugate, does not cause mutation as a preposition);

cyn adael - before leaving

cyn i chi fynd - before you go

cyn y gêm - before the game

cyn hynny - before that

(comparative use; causes weak soft mutation (not to ll, rh))

cyn lleied â llygoden - as small as a mouse

dan / tan - under, beneath, below (conjugates, causes soft mutation)

dan y bwrdd - under the table

o dan - under

(conjunction in an adverbial time clause indicating simultaneous state with an action)

Daeth hi i mewn i'r ystafell dan wenu'n braf - She came into the room smiling broadly

(figuratively below, less than)

dan ddeng mlwydd oed - under ten years old

dros / tros - over (conjugates, causes soft mutation)

(located across from)

byw dros y ffordd - to live over the road

(movement over)

cerdded dros y bont - to walk over the bridge


dros ben - over the top

dros ugain bunt - over twenty pounds

(over a period of time)

dros nos - overnight

dros y penwythnos - over the weekend

dros yr haf - over / during the summer

dros dro - temporary

talu dros chwe mis - to pay over six months (however distributed)

(for, on behalf of, in favour of, expressing concern for)

dyma'r rheswm dros aros yma - that's the reason for staying here

cyfrifoldeb dros - responsibility for

pryder dros - concern for, about

brwydro dros hawliau dynol - to fight for human rights

pleidleiso dros Blaid Cymru - to vote for Plaid Cymru

y rheswm dros y dewis - the reason for the choice

teimlo dros rhywbeth - to feel (something about something) / for something

teimlo drosti hi - to feel for her

gwneud popeth drostyn nhw - to do everything for them

(action on behalf of as a representative or deputy)

chwarae dros Gymru - to play for Wales

siarad dros - to speak for (on behalf of); to speak in favour of

ateb dros - to answer for

erfyn dros - to plead for

erfyn dros drugaredd - to beg for leniencey

eiriol dros - to plead for

gweddïo dros - to pray for

dadlau dros - to argue for

gwylio dros - to watch over, to guard

(expressing broad, cursory action)

edrych dros - to look over

drwy / trwy - through (conjugates, causes soft mutation)

drwy'r twll - through the hole

mynd drwy'r bwlch - to go through the gap


darllen drwy'r nodiadau - to read through the notes

(all through, thoroughout)

drwy'r dydd - all day (long)

drwy'r flwyddyn - throughout the year, all year round

(by the performance of action)

drwy ychwanegu ychydig o ddŵr - by adding a little water

Gall / galli di ddysgu trwy gwrando - one can learn by listening

efo / hefo - with (Gogledd Cymru)

(possession; attribute; in company)

dyn efo gwallt du - a man with black hair

mynd efo chdi - to go with you

dw i efo car newydd - I have a new car (very colloquial)

er - despite, although; since, because of, for (conjugates)

er mor bywsig yw hynny - despite its importance

er gwaethaf - despite

er hynny - despite that

er mwyn - in order to

er mwyn lledfu'r boen - to alleviate the pain

er mwyn cynilo - in order to save (economize)

er mwyn - for the sake or benefit of (compound preposition)

er mwyn y plant - for the children's sake

er ei fwyn e - for his sake

(er may be substituted for er mwym in formal language and formulaic expressions)

er cof am - in memory of

er enghraifft - for example

er tegwch - in fairness

er lles - to the benefit of

er lles pobl / anifeiliaid - for the welfare of people, for animal welfare

er fudd - for the benefit of

er + noun clause (cymal enwol)

er fy mod yn - although I'm

er bod rhai pobl yn dweud - although some people say

ers - since (it is), (from "er ys")

(for an ongoing period of time)

Dw i'n dysgu Cymreag ers pum mlynedd - I've been learning Welsh for five years

Dw i'n aros ers amser hir. - I've been waiting for a long time.

erbyn - by, against, opposite, by (a time)

erbyn hyn - by now

fel - like, as, so (that) (introducing an adverbial clause of purpose)

dringo i fyny fel fy mod i'n gallu gweld yn well - to climb up so I could see better

Rhaid i ni gadael nawr fel y gallwn ni ddal y trên - We must leave now so that we'll be able to catch the train

gan - with (conjugates, causes soft mutation)

(possession pattern - North Wales and formal usage)

Mae gen i ddwy chwaer. - I have two sisters.

(figurative use)

Mae'n ddrwg gen i. - I'm sorry.

Mae'n well gan y plant aros yma - the children prefer to stay here

Mae'n well i fi fynd. - I'd better go.


llyfr gan Bethan Gwanas - a book by Bethan Gwanas

cerdd gan Dic Jones - A poem by Dic Jones

(introducing agent in passive expressions)

cyflwynwyd gan Tesni Ifans - introduced by Tesni Ifans; presented by Tesni Ifans

cafodd ei brathu gan gi - he got bitten by a dog

wedi'i wneud gan Lleucu - made by Lleucu

(something handed over / transferred)

derbyn anrheg gan rywun - to receive a present from someone

derbyn anrheg gan Elliw - to receive a present from Elliw

Faint gest ti gan dad? - how much did you get from dad?

clywed gan rywun - to hear from someone

(indicating manner)

gan ofal - with care

(actor to preposition's complement)

Oedd hi'n hoff ganddo fe grwydro'r mynyddoedd. - He liked to wander the mountains.

(conjunction in an adverbial time clause - action that joins another - as, while ... then)

Baglodd e gan gario'r bag - He tripped as he carried the bag / while carrying the bag

gan ddweud hynny rhaid i fi cyfaddef nad dw i'n siŵr amdani - while saying that, I must confess I'm not sure about it.

gan hynny - therefore, so, given that

(conjunction intoducing adverbial clauses of reason)

gan mor ddwfn oedd y dŵr - as the water was so deep

gan fod - since, as, given that, it being, because

gan ei fod e'n - as he / it is

gan ei fod e'n hwyr - as he is / was late

gan nad yw hwn yn addas ... - as this is not suitable

canys - (very formal) for it is, because

ger - near

gerbron - before (located in front of)

gerbron y llys - before the court

gyda (gydag before vowels) - with (causes aspirate mutation)

(in the company of)

aros gyda fi - to stay with me

aros gyda ni - to stay with us

mynd gyda nhw - to go with them

ynghyda - together with (causes aspirate mutation)

(possession pattern in the South)

Mae dwy chwaer gyda fi. - I have two sisters.


gyda phleser - with pleasure


gyda chyfarchion - with greetings


Traed gyda'r mwyaf a weloch chi erioed - Amongst the biggest feet you've ever seen

(at the time of an event / state)

gyda'r wawr - at dawn

gyda'r nos - at night

cyferbyn â - opposite (within sight)

heb - without (conjugates, causes soft mutation)

hebddi hi - without her

dw i heb = dw i ddim yn / wedi (colloquially) - I have not

dw i heb sylwi - I didn't notice

heibio (adverb from heb)

Aeth e heibio'r siop. - He went past the shop.

heblaw - except

hyd - until

ar hyd - along, (all) through (the length of)

ar hyd yr arfordir - along the coast

o hyd - still (continuing to be)

i - to, into, for (conjugates, causes soft mutation)

(movement towards and arrival into a location)

mynd i Gaerdydd - to

mynd i'r ysgol - to go to school

mind i'r swyddfa - to got to the office

dod i'r ystafell - to come into the room (also dod i mewn i'r ystafell)

(time before the next hour)

Mae'n bum munud i bedwar - It's five minutes to four


mynd i - going to

Dw i'n mynd i brynu ffrog newydd. - I'm going to buy a new dress (also Dw i am brynu ffrog newydd)

(in order to, for the purpose of)

mynd i weld y sioe - to go to see the show

i'w helpu - to help him / her / them

cynilo i arbed arian - economize to save money

mynd i brynu - to go to buy


anrheg i ti - a present for you

addas i blant - suitable for children

(for the use of)

llyfrau i blant - books for children

I drigolion y pentref mae'r parc hwn. - This park is for the villagers.

(direction relative to a place)

i'r Gogledd i (/o) Gaerdydd - to the north of Cardifff

(attribute or characteristic of inanimate object)

y ddwy olwyn i'r drol - the two wheels of the cart

bwthyn ac iddo do gwellt - a thatched cottage

(expressing relationship)

mam i dri o blant - a mother to three children

ffrind i ti - a friend of yours

chwaer iddi hi - a sister of hers (be it the one sister or one of several sisters)

athrawes iddi hi - one of her teachers

nith i ficer yw hi - she's a vicar's daughter

nith i'r ficer - the vicar's daughter

athrawes i blant - a children's teacher

mab i Dafydd - one of Dafydd's sons / Dafydd's son

(introducing recipient of complement in i-clause)

(mae) rhaid i fi gyfaddef - I must admit

gwneud iddi hi deimlo'n hapus - to make her feel happy

aros i'r trên gyrraedd - to wait for the train to arrive

(adverbial time clauses)

cyn iddi hi fynd - before she goes

erbyn iddo fe gyrraedd - by the time he arrives

wrth i'r pwyllgor ddadlau - as the committe debates

ar ôl iddyn nhw gyrraedd - after they arrive / arrived

nes i ti orffen - until you finish

(past tense noun clauses)

Dwedodd hi iddyn nhw brynu tŷ newydd. - She said that they have / had bought a new house.

(relative movement to)

i lawr - down, downward(s)

i fyny - upward(s)

i ffwrdd - away

(movement into)

i mewn i - into, inside

(expressing assumption)

i fod yn - supposed to be <indefinite noun / adjective>

i fod i - supposed to <verb>

(recipient of action)

rhoi i - give to

(figurative into)

ymchwilio i - to research (into), to investigate

(figurative giving)

addo i rywun - to promise someone

caniatáu i - to permit to

cynnig i - to offer to

dangos i - to show to

diolch i rywun - to thank someone

diolch i rywun am wneud rhywbeth - to thank someone for doing something

gofyn i - to ask of someone

gofyn i rywun wneud rhywbeth - to ask someone to do something

gofyn i rywun am rywbeth - to ask someone about something

gorchymyn i - to command

gweddu i - to uit, to be fitting to

maddau i - to forgive

(response to external influence)

adweithio i - to react to

bodloni i - to satisfy, to be content with

ufuddhau i - to obey

ufuddhau i rywun - to obey someone

ymddarostwng i - to submit to

i gyd - all

lan - up (South Wales)

mewn - in something indefinite

mewn tŷ - in a house

mewn pryd - in / on time

y tu mewn i'r tŷ - inside the house

ymddiddori mewn hanes - to be interested in history

ymhyfrydu mewn canu - to delight in singing

nes - until (pronounced with a short vowel in contrast to "nes" - nearer)

aros nes y bws cyraedd - to wait until the bus arrives

o from, out, of (conjugates, causes soft mutation)

(movement out of)

cymryd modwry o'r blwch - to take a ring from the box

(originating from)

dod o Lanbedr - to come from Llanbedr

(from direction)

gwyntoedd yn hyrddio o'r de-orllewin - winds gusting from the south-west

(from, figuratively)

diolch o galon - thank you very much (from the heart)

(from a time)

o naw y bore tan tri y prynhawn - from nine in the morning until three in the afternoon

(number or amount of)

cant o bunnau - one hundred pounds

llawer o bobl - many people

rhagor o - more of

mwy o - more of

dim o gwbl - not at all

llond trol o - a cartful of (an abundance of)


dwy ran o dair - two thirds

llygedyn o obaith - a glimmer of hope

(singling out / selection)

pwy ohonoch chi ... ? - which of you ... ?

rhai o'r fyfyrwyr - some of the students

Does fawr o neb yn byw yno. - Hardly anyone lives there.

(of substance)

gwydr o win - a glass of wine

wedi'i wneud o bren - material - made of wood


neidio o lawenydd - to jump with / for joy

o barch i - out of respect for

llewygu o ddifyg aer - to faint from lack of air


o ran direidi - out of mischief


bod â meddwl mawr o rywun - to hold someone in high regard, to think highly of

(expressing a quality, degree)

andros o dda - exceedingly good

eithriadol o dda - exceptionally good

drud o lawer - very expensive

gwell o lawer - much better

llai o faint - smaller (of lesser size)

hynod o falch - exceedingly proud

sobr o bwysig - very important

mynd o chwith - to go wrong

newyddion da o lawenydd mawr - glad tidings

tipyn o gamp - quite some achievement

clamp o beth - (big) lump of a thing, a whopper

dipyn o ddihiryn - a bit of a rogue

pa fath o - what kind of

bod yn deygol o wneud rhywbeth - to be likely to do something

annhebygol o ddigwydd - unlikely to happen

bod yn falch iawn o glywed - to be very pleased to hear

bod yn drist o weld rhywbeth - to be sad to see something

bod yn benderfynnol o wneud rhywbeth - to be determined to do something

bod yn benderfynnol o beidio â gwneud rhywbeth - to be determined not to do something


siwr o fod - bound to be

dod o hyd i - to find

o hyd - still (continuing to be)

yma o hyd - still here

o ran - on the part of, with regard to

o blaid - of the opinion (that), in favour of

o flaen - in front of (compound preposition)

(movement to, or location at)

rhedeg e o flaen y car - he ran in front of the car

o dy flaen di - in front of you

o herwydd - because of (compound preposition)

o'i herwydd - because of it

o gwmpas - around (compound preposition)

o dy gwmpas di / o'th gwmpas - around you

o'i chwmpas hi - around her

o amgylch - surrounding (compound preposition)

o'i hamgylch - surrounding her

o achos - because (compound preposition)

o'i hachos hi - because of her

oblegid - because (compound preposition)

o'm plegid - because of me

oherwydd - because (compound preposition)

o'u herwydd - because of them

oddi ar (movement from on, located above a surface)

cwympo oddi ar y bwrdd - to fall from the table

oddi wrth (movement from by)

symud oddi wrth y ffenestr - to move away from the window

(located away from)

dau fetr oddi wrth ei gilydd - two metres apart from one another

(denoting giver)

llyfr oddi wrth fy mam i - a book from my mum

oddi dan - (movement) from under

y tu ôl i - (located) behind

y tu ôl i'r tŷ - behind the house

parthed (very formal) - about, concerning

rhag against, from, before (conjugates)

drws rhag tân - fire door

rhag ofn - lest

(obstacle, prevention, resistance)

achub rhag - to rescue from

amddifyn rhag - to defend against

arswydo rhag - to be horrified by

atal rhag - to prevent from

cadw rhag drwg - protect from evil

celu rhag - to conceal from

cuddio rhag - to hide from

cysgodi rhag - to shelter from, to shade from

dianc rhag - to escape from

diogelu rhag - to protect against

gochel rhag - to shelter from

gwarchod rhag - to protect against, to protect from

gwaredu rhag - to deliver from

rhwng (conjugates, does not itself mutate)

(between - physically or figuratively)

rhyngoch chi - between you

rhyngddyn nhw - between them

(expressing contrast, choice, division, distribution)

dewis rhwng - to choose between

rhannu arian rhwng - to share money between

gwanhaniaeth rhwng - difference between

tan (dan) - until (conjugates, causes soft mutation)

(until time)

tan ddeg o'r gloch - until ten o'clock

o naw y bore tan dri y prynhawn - from nine in the morning until three in the afternoon

(until event)

aros tan iddyn nhw gyrraedd - to wait until they arive

tua (tuag before vowels) - towards, about, circa, around (causes aspirate mutation, does not soft-mutate)

(approximately, circa)

tua thri chant - about three hundred

tua deg punt - about ten pounds

(movement towards (but not with a pronoun))

tua chartref - towards / for home

tuag at - towards

(movement towards)

symud tuag ataf i - to move towards me

wrth - by (conjugates, causes soft mutation)

(located by)

wrth y drws - by the door

(simultaneous action)

wrth adael - while leaving

wrth i ni adael - as we leave

(recipient of a spoken action)

dweud wrth - to tell

adrodd wrth - to recite to, to deliver a report, to narrate a story to

cyfaddef wrth - to admit to

cyffesu wrth - to confess to

sôn wrth - to speak to

clywed wrth - to hear from

(joining together)

cadwyno wrth - to chain to

crogi wrth - to hang from

cydio wrth - to grasp (someting)

glynu wrth - to adhere to

rhwymo wrth - to bind to

(recipients of kind or unkind actions)

cenfigennu wrth - to be envious of

digio wrth - to be angry with

trugarhau wrth - to have mercy on

tosturio wrth - to take pity on

llawenhau wrth - to rejoice with

llidio wrth - to become angry with

sorri wrth - to become angry with, to be offended by

(idiomatic use)

bod wrthi (hi) - to be at it

bod wrthi'n gwneud rhwybeth - to be busy doing somethind

Dyn ni'n wrthi'n adfer y ty - We're busy restoring the house

bod wrth fy modd / dy fodd / ei fodd / ei bodd (hi) / ein bodd(au) / eich bodd(au) / eu bodd(au) - to be in one's element, to be delighted, to love

(conjunction in an adverbial time clause indicating simultaneous actions - while, as)

Roeddwn i'n dal y babi wrth gwthio'r troli - I was holding the baby while pushing the trolley

Wrth i'r trên ymadael sylweddolais i fy mod i wedi colli fy nhocyn i - As the train departed I realized that I had lost my ticket.

wrth ymyl - bordering, next to

wedi - after wedi (not with a person but after an event or time) (more formal than ar ôl)

wedi'r dosbarth - after the class

wedi'r arholiad - after the exam

wedi hynny - after that

(time after the hour)

Mae'n bum munud wedi pedwar. - It's five minutes past four.

(used with a verbnoun / verb to express a completed aspect)

Dw i wedi dysgu gymaint! - I have learned so much!

yn - (Used with a verbnoun / verb to express a progressive aspect)

Dw i'n dysgu. - I am learning.

Roedd hi'n dysgu. - She was learning.

yn - (predicative yn)

mynd yn ei flaen / mynd yn ei blaen etc. - to go ahead

mynd yn ei ôl / mynd yn ei hôl etc. - to go back

yn - in, inside (preposition) (causes nasal mutation and may itself change to ym / yng)

(used with a definite noun. Located in, inside, within a space)

yn yr archfarnad - in the supermarket

yng Nghaerdydd - in Cardiff

mynd yn y bws - to go in the bus / by bus

mynd yn y trên - to go in the train / by train

(during a period of time)

yn y bore - in the morning

yn y gaeaf - in the winter

yn ystod y dydd - during the day

(connection together)

ailgydio yn - to take up again, to resume

cydio yn - to grasp, to take hold of, to seize

cydio yn ei law - to seize his hand

gafael yn - to grasp, to hold (tight or firmly)

gafael yn dy law - to hold your hand

gafael yn ei llaw - to hold her hand

yn, mewn (mewn for indefinite complements)

(expressing total or unconditional commitment)

credu yn - to believe in

gorfoleddu yn - to rejoice in

llawenhau yn - to rejoice in

ymbleseru yn - to take pleasure in

ymdrybaeddu yn - to wallow in

ymddiddori yn - to be interested in

ymddiried yn - to trust in

ymddiried ynddyn nhw - to trust in them

ymffrostio yn - to boast about

ymhyfrydu yn - to take delight in

ymserchu yn - to fall in love with, to be infatuated with

yn sgîl - resulting from, because; following

ymhen - within (time period)

ynghlŷn â - in connection with, regarding

ymhlith (compound preposition) / ymysg - among

(among several things)

ambell ddillad da ymysg y pentwr - a few good clothes among the pile

yn eu plith nhw - among them

(ymhlith may express an element of order not shared by ymysg)

y lle cywir ymhlith y llyfrau ar y silff - the correct place among the books on the shelf

yn yml - (right) by, next to (compound preposition)

yn ei yml - next to it / him

yn eu hyml - next to them

See also:

Conjugating prepositions

Compound prepositions

Idiomatic use of prepositions

Idiomatic use of ar with possessive

List of expressions that start with ar

1 Comment
15:17 UTC


A steep learning curve - seeking an advice

I was wondering whether anyone, who is more experienced and knowledgeable about language learning, can provide some personal insights or offer a piece of advice. For the past two years, I have been learning Cymraeg/Welsh (North dialect) in online class environment - it gave me a solid basic grasp on grammatical structures and linguistical expressions. However, I find learning Welsh language in a stark contrast with my journey to learn English. The learning curve seems to be way steeper. A bit of background information, I am a native Polish speaker who lives the UK through the medium of English. I find English as an easy formidable tool to construct my sense of self or the world around me. I would love to reach the same level of proficiency in Welsh as well.

Recently, I have progressed into the Canolradd course (South Dialect) but I feel out of my depth when it comes down to speaking and listening tasks. My course mates are so proficient in conveying their thoughts or conversation points, whereas I do stumble on the choice of the right words.

However, I feel as I am not lagging behind the writing and reading though. I spoke with my tutor about my concerns that I might be letting my course mates down with my communication skills in Welsh; they reassured me that they do not share my concerns and they want me to wait and hold my decision to go to lower level class (Sylfaen) for a few more weeks.

I have got a few people in my life that are fluent Welsh speakers and they are so kind and generous with their time and patience. However, since we established our relationships in English, it is quite hard for me to switch to Welsh with them as I do not want to hinder our relationships with my linguistical difficulties.

At the moment, what I do to improve my Welsh:

- I watch a lot of TV and films in Welsh with English subtitles on S4C (and after watching the content, I would normally switch to Welsh subtitles and make notes of the vocabulary and expressions)

- I read short stories in Welsh (that are dedicated for Welsh learners)

- I text or email my friends in Welsh from time to time

- I write birthday cards or other small notes in Welsh

- I use simple Welsh in shops, café where there is a visible lanyard or badge (Iaith Gwaith)

- I see the play if they are in Welsh in local theatre

- I listen to Welsh music, and sometimes practice those songs for my singing lessons

I am planning to start using flashcards and plaster my place up with them so I can memorise and retain more vocabulary as I struggle to retain them. I am working my courage to join the scheme when you are paired up with a Welsh speaker to practice your speaking skills.

For some reason, I feel as if my Welsh language learning journey is going at sluggish pace in comparison to when I was trying to learn English. Can anyone relate to that? Can anyone explain this steeper learning curve? Is there anything else I can do? Should I stay in the class or move down the level again to improve my speaking?

Any help and advice would be much appreciated - apologies for a such long-winded post!

14:22 UTC


Question about Mae hi’n braf

“Mae hi’n braf” Duolingo’ just taught me that this means “It is fine”

Does this only apply for weather? (Since this is in a weather lesson, and was saying it is fine in Swansea) Like, “it is fine weather” or can braf mean fine in general. If so, how can you say that “she is fine” since hi is she.

Or if not, how would you say fine for people etc.


23:23 UTC


WWOTD: Sefydlog

Stable, fixed, unchanging



cadw'n heini!

23:16 UTC


Geirfa Ddefnyddiol Feunyddiol / Daily Useful Vocabulary

cyfaint (g) ll. cyfeintiau - volume (three-dimensional space)

gwlypter (g) - moisture, wetness, dampness

gan hynny - because of that, therefore, so

erledigaeth (b) - persecution

hebog tramor (g) ll. hebogiaid tramor, hebogau tramor - peregrine falcon

y gwir amdani - the truth of it, the fact is, in reality

corwg (g) ll. coryglau - coracle

cwrwgl (g) ll. cyryglau - coracle

yn llwrw - in the wake of, in the track or trail of, after, behind, following, towards, in the direction of (often rendered in English by the suffixes ‘-long, -wards, -ways’)

yn llwrw ei ben etc. - headlong

yn wysg ei gefn - backwards

wysg (g) - track, path, direction

07:40 UTC


Ta yn lle neu

Helo pawb, jesd cwestiwn sydyn. Dwi di symud lan i'r gogledd a awn yn deud 'ta' i olygu 'neu', be ydi'r gair llawn yna? Diolch

00:13 UTC


Geirfa Ddefnyddiol Feunyddiol / Daily Useful Vocabulary

cysawd (g) ll. cysodau - planetary system

cysawd yr haul (g) - the solar system

galaethog - galactic

croestoriad (g) ll. croestoriadau - intersection

trawstoriad (g) ll. trawstoriadau - cross section

gweithred (b) ll. gweithredoedd - action

uniononglog - right-angled

ystwytho cyhyrau - to stretch (one's) muscles

cymwynaswr (g) ll. cymynaswyr - benefactor, someone doing a good turn or favour

buchedd (b) ll. bucheddau - lifetime, biography (especially of a saint), way of life, moral conduct in life

alltaith (g) ll. allteithiau - expedition (journey)

allteithiol - expeditionary

07:37 UTC


WWOTD: Cytuno’n llwyr

To completely agree


Gytuno’n llwyrChytuno’n llwyrNghytuno’n llwyrCytuno’n llwyr

cadw'n heini!

23:16 UTC


Can I watch S4C outside of the UK?

When I try to watch a show it says: "We’re sorry but this video isn’t available in your country due to rights". Is there any way to avoid this besides a VPN?

20:19 UTC

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