/r/genetics

Photograph via //r/genetics

For discussion of genetics research, ethical and social issues arising from genetics and its applications, genetics career questions, etc.

Genetics, genes, and genomes

Frequently asked questions

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Rules:

  1. Be nice - No trolling, personal attacks, hate speech, bullying, harassment, etc.

  2. No promotions or advertisements without moderator approval - This includes crowdfunding, online courses, personal genetics testing services.

  3. No low effort posts - Posts which are directly addressed by the FAQs in the wiki may be removed. Posts and comments should generate or contribute to a discussion.

  4. No pseudoscience or misinformation

  5. No medical questions - We are not equipped to provide medical advice. Please see the pinned readme thread for details on this rule.

  6. No homework or study help posts outside of the megathread - Please see the pinned megathread for guidelines.

  7. No posts containing just personal ancestry/genetic testing results - Posts for help with interpreting such results should contain a specific question and will be removed if covered by the FAQ.

  8. Directly link to research studies - Videos, press summaries, or news articles discussing a specific study must be accompanied by a link to the study in question.

Please use the report feature to notify the moderators of rule violations so they can be dealt with quickly.

*Mods reserve the right to remove posts or comments at their discretion. Repeated or particularly egregious violations of these rules may result in temporary or permanent bans. If you have any questions or complaints, feel free to contact the mod team via modmail.

 

Helpful links
Please check out our wiki for FAQs and helpful resources in genetics.

/r/genetics

102,252 Subscribers

1

How Genetics Shape Your Spice Tolerance

0 Comments
2024/03/28
18:41 UTC

2

Why mutation of certain diseases only show symptoms at a later age?

If you're born with a mutation that causes a disease, why it shows symptoms later not at birth?

9 Comments
2024/03/28
14:45 UTC

0

Analysis tools

Dear friends, what genetic tools you know, that are freely available to use (with web interface) ? Main interest is using vcf file of exome or genome sequencing for prediction scores, risk variants and so on. Intended use is for fun, not for clinical questions. Genetic data leakage is acceptable risk

1 Comment
2024/03/28
14:33 UTC

3

How many generations removed before you're basically unrelated to a direct ancestor?

Or does it work like that? Basically how far do you have to go to where any random modern stranger is roughly the same % related

9 Comments
2024/03/28
14:15 UTC

3

Looking for Professionals In Genetics to Talk too

Hey! I am just beginning my interests in genetics and was wondering if any one could answer questions surrounding genetics and potential of it being into a career. Im about to be in my final year of school and realized my calling for genetics, but sadly, I have no idea what to do. I feel lost atp but I'm motivated to learn. A few people have asked me what I want to get into IN genetics but I really have no idea. If it helps I enjoy math (I don't enjoy cs) and prefer the more human, heredity topic of genetics more.

If there is anyone willing to pass down their knowledge around the field of genetics (such as books to read, podcasts to listen to, or just general information) pls let me know! Just some advice should suffice! Thank u!

1 Comment
2024/03/27
23:55 UTC

2

Career

Hello. I'm thinking of pursuing a career in genetics and genomic. Was just wondering if this is a viable industry to enter. Its something that really interests me but I won't do it if I'm struggling to get a job after I graduate. What kind of jobs await me? Any input from someone already in this field is greatly appreciated

1 Comment
2024/03/28
00:53 UTC

0

A good analogy to help me understand Replica Plating/Fluctuation testing better?

I am currently taking a genetics class which is finally covering mutations. Does anyone have a good analogy to help me comprehend replica plating? I found a video on YouTube that helped, but I still struggle to understand the big picture. Any help?

3 Comments
2024/03/27
21:44 UTC

0

So why can’t genetic information just be used to healthcare development and nothing else?

So why can’t genetic information just be used to healthcare development and nothing else? why do governments and lawmakers need to take into account commercial interests when those are just raising multiple societal scenarios that nobody knows what to do with or regulate? why cant access be strictly controlled?

as of now i dont know of any companies who do but im writing an essay on DNA data and privacy and some of the main concerns are from people who dont want insurance companies or future employers to get access to their genome information so that they are not at a disadvantage and the issue of 'privacy' keeps coming up which im also finding hard to quanity

9 Comments
2024/03/27
19:08 UTC

0

Are there any AI tools we can use to compare the genetic makeup of two different animals to list the similar and different genes?

Where and how do we access the database of wild animal genome information and comparison like this? I really want to do genetic comparison between two different but closely related species or even between individuals within the same species to understand the genetic influence of their different behaviors.

7 Comments
2024/03/27
18:02 UTC

2

Monthly Homework Help Megathread

All requests for help with exam study and homework questions must be posted here. Posts made outside this thread will generally be removed.

Are you a student in need of some help with your genetics homework? Do you need clarification on basic genetics concepts before an exam? Please ask your questions here.

Please follow the following basic guidelines when asking for help:

  • We won't do your homework for you.
  • Be reasonable with the amount of questions that you ask (people are busy, and won't want to walk you through an entire problem set).
  • Provide an adequate description of the problem or concept that you're struggling with. Blurry, zoomed-in shots of a Punnett square are not enough.
  • Respond to requests for clarification.
  • Ask your instructor or TA for help. Go to office hours, and participate in class.
  • Follow the template below.

Please use the following template when asking questions:

Question template


Type:

Level:

System:

Topic:

Question:

Answer:

What I know:

What I don’t know:

What I tried:

Other:


End template

Example


Type: Homework

Level: High school

System: Cats

Topic: Dihybrid cross

Question: “The genetic principles that Mendel uncovered apply to animals as well as plants. In cats, for instance, Black (B) is dominant over brown (b) fur color and Short (S) fur is dominant over long (s) fur. Suppose a family has a black, short-furred male, heterozygous for both of these traits that they mate with a heterozygous black, long-furred female. Determine and present the genotypes of the two parent animals, the likely gametes they could produce and assuming they have multiple, large liters what is the proportion of kittens of each possible phenotype (color and length) that the family might expect.”

Answer: N/A

What I know: I understand how to do a Punnett square with one allele. For example, Bb x Bb.

Bb
BBBBb
bBbbb

What I don’t know: I don’t know how to properly set up the Punnett square to incorporate the additional S (fur length) allele in the gamete.

What I tried: I tried Googling “cat fur genetics” and didn’t find any useful examples.

Other: What happens if there is another allele added to these?


End of Example

This format causes me abject pain, why do I have to fill out the template?

  1. We want folks to learn and understand. Requiring the user to put in effort helps curb the number of “drive-by problem sets” being dumped onto the sub from users expecting the internet to complete their assignments.
  2. Posters often do not include enough information to adequately help answer the question. This format eliminates much of the guesswork for respondents and it allows responders quickly assess the level of knowledge and time needed to answer the question.
  3. This format allows the posts to be programmatically archived, tagged, and referenced at later times for other students.

Type: Where did the question come from? Knowing the origin of the question can help us formulate the best available answer. For example, the question might come from homework, an exam, a course, a paper, an article, or just a thought you had.

Level: What is the expected audience education level of the question and answer? This helps us determine if the question should be answered in the manner of, “Explain like I’m 5” or “I’m the PI of a mega lab, show me the dissertation” E.g.--elementary school, high school, undergraduate, research, nonacademic, curiosity, graduate, layperson

System: Which species, system, or field does the question pertain? E.g.—human, plant, in silico, cancer, health, astrobiology, fictional world, microbiology

Topic: What topic is being covered by the question? Some examples might include Mendelian genetics, mitosis, codon bias, CRISPR, or HWE.

Question: This is where you should type out the question verbatim from the source.

Answer: If you’ve been provided an answer already, put it here. If you don’t have the answer, leave this blank or fill in N/A.

What I know: Tell us what you understand about the problem already. We need to get a sense of your current domain knowledge before answering. This also forces you to engage with the problem.

What I don’t know: Tell us where you’re getting stuck or what does not make sense.

What I tried: Tell us how you’ve approached the problem already. What worked? What did not work?

Other: You can put whatever you want here or leave it blank. This is a good place to ask follow-up questions and post links.

0 Comments
2024/03/27
16:00 UTC

1

Explain it to me like I'm 5

How can you identify if a genetic mutation is germline? Does germline just mean it was passed from parent to child?

7 Comments
2024/03/27
15:27 UTC

1 Comment
2024/03/27
13:05 UTC

7

Are there any known germline mutations that can dramatically reduce cancer risk?

So I know there’s LOF mutations in genes like TP53, BRCA1/2 that can massively increase cancer risk. There’s also SNPs from various genes in GWAS studies associated with decreased risks of certain cancers, but these appear to be small decreases generally. So I’m just wondering if there’s any known mutations detected in any human that massively decrease cancer risk to the point where it would make it extremely unlikely for someone to ever get cancer. Is this theoretically possible? If not, what about something like having extra copies of tumor suppressor genes, would this decrease cancer dramatically?

14 Comments
2024/03/26
21:37 UTC

37

Theyre never on the same phage

1 Comment
2024/03/26
00:51 UTC

1

Bananas 50% of Human DNA

If we have such a high percentage compared to bananas, the common ancestor between us already had much of what would make us human, even before the dinosaurs, in other words, it took less time for us to differentiate 50% in recent years than billions of years to reach the 50%, right?

4 Comments
2024/03/25
23:24 UTC

1

Question on the format of a SNP Report

I recently had a genetic test done to determine whether I have a predisposition for Macular Degeneration (I had the test because my father had MD).

For example, on a particular gene (CFH) the report lists 2 SNPs (rs3766405 and rs412852) and the findings for these are "CT" and "TT" respectively.

I'm just asking about the meaning (not the significance) of the CT and TT results.

For instance, does "CT" for the first SNP mean I have a C in that location on one chromosome and a T in that location on the other chromosome - or does it mean that people typically have a C in that location and I have a T in that location?

Similarly, does "TT" for the second SNP mean I have a T in that location on both my chromosomes - or does it mean that people typically have a T in that location and I also have a T in that location?

Thanks

3 Comments
2024/03/25
21:49 UTC

0

Do grad programs require a particular physics?

I'm an undergrad prepping my next semester schedule. My options are applied physics or physics without calculus. Does it matter which I take? I want to pursue a grad degree in genetics or computational bio

3 Comments
2024/03/25
17:03 UTC

0

WGS Sequencing Options

Howdy!
I am interested in getting a WGS ran. Most of the information I have found stems from a couple years ago. I was wondering if y'all had any recommendations of where I should get this done/things to look for in a provider in terms of getting the best product possible.

I initally ordered from Dante Labs, but they have not even received my sample yet and are about to get a nice legal complaint so they are out.

6 Comments
2024/03/25
14:43 UTC

2

ayme-gripp syndrome

TLDR: Looking for more information on Aymé-Gripp syndrome. My little sister was diagnosed with Aymé-Gripp syndrome (also know as Fine-Lubinsky syndrome), but the visit that is supposed to give us detailed explanation and information is scheduled for next year. It's a genetic disease diagnosed for the first time in 1996, so it's still quite new. Diagnosis itself is based mainly on literature and there isn't much of that ethier. Apparently there is about 30 people in the world who got diagnosed with Aymé-Gripp, wich makes it hard to learn about it. Is there anyone here who is familiar with rare genetic disorders or just can guide us where to look for more information on this? My mom doesn't speak English, but she wants to know as much as possible about this disease. I tried to translate some articles to her, but they are either copying eachother word for word or they focus on the professional medical description of what is going on with the chromosomes, not how it actually works in real life.

5 Comments
2024/03/25
13:22 UTC

1

I need help choosing a career

So I have just graduated high school and genetics has been an interest of mine for a while now, and over the years I’ve reduced my options to molecular genetics and forensics. I’ve obviously researched what they do and their work hrs etc but I would really appreciate it if someone would give me both pros and cons of working in forensics and the same for molecular genetics

3 Comments
2024/03/25
07:27 UTC

1

Yeniseians and the Karasuk Culture

Yeniseians and the Karasuk Culture

According to this article, the Ket people, the only remaining Yeniseian ethnic group, are the closest genetically to the Karasuk Culture due to their ANE admixture. However, the Srubnaya component of Yeniseians is smaller than a large portion of the Siberian Turkic peoples as shown by this graph.

The Karasuk Culture, however, was tested and determined to have a majority-Europoid population (according to Wikipedia). These facts seem contradictory, so could anyone explain why Kets have such high genetic affinity to the Karasuk Culture and maybe clear up some misconceptions about the ANE?

(I asked this question on two other subreddits, but they were removed because they shouldn't have belonged there and I'm terrible at finding the correct subreddits especially for topics such as this. This user gave me this helpful link, but some of the folks at r/AskAnthropology pointed out how little it focuses on the Karasuk culture, so I'd like to keep the question open for discussion).

0 Comments
2024/03/25
02:59 UTC

5

I need help finding my biological father

I don’t know who my biological father is. I got a DNA test and matched with a cousin (likely first cousin we share 9.19% DNA) from my father’s side. I see her last name shared with two other relatives I have matched with. Does this mean my dad is probably her dad’s brother? Any other tips for narrowing my search down?

7 Comments
2024/03/24
06:19 UTC

0

Was wondering if anyone knew about the beringians? I tried looking up information and youtube videos for information. Like i want to know about there dna and how it’s different.

1 Comment
2024/03/24
04:54 UTC

0

C-Value in genomics

Hi everyone! Im currently taking a class about genomics and im really confused about something.

The C-Value is the amount of DNA of a haploid nucleus of a organism, and this value isn’t necessarily indicative of complexity nor cellular development. The biggest part in this difference in genomes size are the non coding regions, repetitive sequences and duplication of chromosomes. (Or at least thats what i understood lol)

So! I was wondering what’s the implication of this on genomic studies. What’s the importance of knowing the C-Value of the genome of the organism for this purpose? Does this affect sequencing or anything?

2 Comments
2024/03/23
17:04 UTC

0

What traits (height, personality, etc.) do we inherit from each parent?

9 Comments
2024/03/22
18:48 UTC

1

FYI - 23&Me Raw Data Variant Omission - MYBPC3

Hello, just an FYI post in case anyone is specifically looking for information about genetic changes in the MYBPC3 gene related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. I would recommend medical grade genetic testing for cardiology through a provider like Invitae. 23&Me *does* include some variant testing for some of the MYBPC3 genes but *does not* include testing for variants related to rs375882485. My daughter has this form of cardiomyopathy and has this gene variant. It is very common and very significant. This is not a slam on 23&Me - just a heads up for those interested in this particular genetic pathology. Thanks!

1 Comment
2024/03/21
18:54 UTC

11

Is this cystic fibrosis mutation common? Wife is a carrier. I am getting tested next.

15 Comments
2024/03/22
04:27 UTC

2

Is the genetic material in the human ovum subject to change after gestation?

I fear I have a simplistic view on this process of handing down genetic material through the female reproductive system specifically, please correct me on that if so.

There seems to be a pop-science understanding that the egg cell that created you was present in your mother when she was still growing inside your grandmother’s womb. Does this mean that the genetic material you received matrilineally was unaltered after your ovum was originally formed? ie, your mother’s ovum was fertilized, then her mother’s genetic material fused with her father’s sperm, and then your ovum was created during your mother’s gestation, and this ovum’s “contents” did not change through the duration of her life until your conception?

this question came up around something like epigenetics, where experience can shape the expression of genes that are passed on. is there even an avenue for something happening during your mothers life to alter or update the genetic material in the egg cell that will become you?

3 Comments
2024/03/22
04:05 UTC

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