Photograph via snooOG

This is a place for the rational discussion of the science of climate change. If you want to post about politics or climate policy, try /r/ClimateNews or /r/climatepolicy.

This is a place for the rational discussion of the science of climate change. If you want to post about politics or climate policy, try /r/ClimateNews or /r/climatepolicy.

Subreddit rules:

  1. No politics. Your post will be silently deleted if it is about politics.

  2. Don't disparage the sub as a whole.

  3. No video posts.

  4. No meta. Take it to modmail.

  5. Don’t discourage people from convincing others that climate change matters.

A big climate change reading list by /u/discoastermusicus



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Carbon Brief report — In the 1750-2023 period, a cumulative total of 2596 Gt of CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and land use were released into the global atmosphere — 1111 Gt, or 42.8% of those CO2 emissions were remaining airborne in the global atmosphere in 2023


[Near page bottom]  Atmosphere accumulation hits new heights

More than 40% of human emissions since the industrial revolution have accumulated in the atmosphere, with the remainder absorbed by land and ocean sinks.

The upper chart in the figure below shows the cumulative human emissions (dark blue line) and atmospheric CO2 accumulation (red) since 1750. The lower chart shows the percentage of cumulative emissions remaining in the atmosphere.

Around 40% of historical emissions have accumulated in the atmosphere

[Interactive charts]

[Chart caption]  Cumulative CO2 emissions from fossil fuels (with the carbonation sink removed) and land use as well as atmospheric CO2 accumulation between 1750 and 2023 (top). Percentage of cumulative CO2 emissions remaining in the atmosphere over time (bottom). Data from the Global Carbon Project; chart by Carbon Brief.

The data underpinning the Carbon Brief charts is available at the Global Carbon Project > Global Carbon Budget 2023 > Read The GCB 2023 Report In Full.

12:35 UTC


Portugal reducing CO2 emissions by 170,000 tons annually, power nearly 100,000 households

04:11 UTC


Busting thorium myths (nuclear power)

In the following article, I bust some myths surrounding thorium, a fuel that could replace uranium in our nuclear reactors. I wrote the article several years ago but didn't make it public at the time. It seems like it might help if I share it. It's based on what I learned during my master's (which was focused on materials in molten salt reactors, a type of next generation nuclear fission reactor). https://medium.com/@cedriceveleigh/busting-thorium-myths-d3f5347ab9c3

00:17 UTC

09:16 UTC


The IPCC definition of global warming is found in an elusive IPCC glossary — “The increase in global surface temperature relative to a baseline reference period, averaging over a period sufficient to remove interannual variations (e.g., 20 or 30 years). A common choice for the baseline is 1850–1900”

IPCC Sixth Assessment Report, Working Group I, Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis, 9 August 2021 > Front Matter, Annexes, and Index > Annex VII Glossary Download: Global Warming (pdf, report page number 2232):


Global warming   Global warming refers to the increase in global surface temperature relative to a baseline reference period, averaging over a period sufficient to remove interannual variations (e.g., 20 or 30 years). A common choice for the baseline is 1850–1900 (the earliest period of reliable observations with sufficient geographic coverage), with more modern baselines used depending upon the application. See also Climate change and Climate variability.

The IPCC glossary definition of global warming suggests that the world would not reach 1.5ºC global warming unless the averaged global surface temperature reaches 1.5ºC or higher over a long-term period of 20 or 30 consecutive years.

For example, if the averaged global surface temperature were to reach 1.5ºC or higher over the 20-year period 2024-2043, or the 30-year period 2024-53, with respect to the averaged global surface temperature in the pre-industrial reference period 1850-1900, the world would reach 1.5ºC global warming or higher in 2043 or 2053.

So, what was the averaged global surface temperature in the pre-industrial reference period 1850-1900? The NCEI NOAA Climate at a Glance Global Time Series interactive online platform provides an answer:

1850-1900 Global Land and Ocean January-December Average Temperature Anomalies > After the downloadable CSV file is opened in a spreadsheet application, it shows that the global land and ocean annual average temperature anomaly (to 5 decimals) in the 1850-1900 period was -0.17176ºC with respect to the estimated 1901-2000 global land & sea mean surface temperature 13.9ºC.

According to the NCEI NOAA data, the global land and ocean annual mean surface temperature was approximately 13.73ºC in the 1850-1900 period.

About the global annual averaged surface temperature in the pre-industrial reference period 1850-1900:

Five major climate datasets share some disagreement when comparing their estimates of global warming since 1850-1900. For global warming in the year 2023, the five datasets indicate differences of up to 0.2ºC, while the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) reported in 2023, that the combined multiple datasets indicated 1.45ºC global warming following the 1850-1900 period:

Berkeley Earth Global Temperature Report for 2023, January 12, 2024 > "Comparisons with Other Groups" section > Table: "Temperature in 2023 relative to the dataset’s own 1850-1900 average".

00:58 UTC


Carbon Footprint Calculator and Tracker

I am building a personal carbon footprint calculator and tracking app. I would love feedback on the app: what features would you like to see in an app like this? Would you use this app on a regular basis?

15:59 UTC


Web App to Measure Your Carbon Footprint and Reduce

This app calculates your carbon footprint based on your daily activities. It also suggests actions to reduce your carbon footprint.
Please give feedback for this web app


13:33 UTC


do you think that when severe climate change effects start to hit from 2040 till the end of the century, technologies will catch up and by the end of 21st century, population would be less (natural and climate causes) but way better off and the world would be healing?

15:16 UTC


Analysis of U.S. wind and solar energy production as of January 2024— Interactive map and table — Percentage of wind and solar energy generated in each of 50 states — State-by-state counties where generation of solar power, wind power or both is allowed, banned, restricted, or under a moratorium


State of Iowa: https://data.usatoday.com/renewable-energy-production/iowa/6567/99914/


Amount of renewable energy it already makes (as of January 2024):

Wind: 64.43% [Based on EIA data from 2022]

Solar: 1.24% [SEIA data current through: Q4 2023. Current SEIA data 1.29%]

Iowa ... gets 64% of its power from wind turbines, the most of any state in the nation. ...

Among 99 counties, 12 (12%) have significant impediments to wind, seven (7%) have significant impediments to solar.

State of Ohio: https://data.usatoday.com/renewable-energy-production/ohio/347/99934/


Amount of renewable energy it already makes (as of January 2024):

Wind: 2.26% [Based on EIA data from 2022]

Solar: 1.21% [SEIA data current through: Q4 2023. Current SEIA data 1.31%]

Ohio ... has the most individual county level bans on wind and solar of any state in the nation ...

Among 88 counties, 20 (22.7%) have significant impediments to wind, 20 (22.7%) have significant impediments to solar [bans, restrictions, moratoriums].

01:06 UTC


WMO State of the Global Climate 2023 report, 19 March 2024 — “There is still hope” — “Renewable energy capacity and use is booming” — “Climate adaptation financing is increasing” — “The cost of climate action might be high” — “But the cost of inaction is even higher” — “Our planet can't wait”

Climate change indicators reached record levels in 2023: WMO. (1 page - charts, map, data sources, video).

WMO 2023 report > Select "English" (or other language) — Extremes SupplementView Report (53 pages).

The WMO report confirmed that 2023 was the warmest year on record, with the global average near-surface temperature at 1.45 °Celsius (with a margin of uncertainty of ± 0.12 °C) above the pre-industrial baseline. It was the warmest ten-year period on record.

On an average day in 2023, nearly one third of the global ocean was gripped by a marine heatwave, harming vital ecosystems and food systems. Towards the end of 2023, over 90% of the ocean had experienced heatwave conditions at some point during the year.

The global set of reference glaciers suffered the largest loss of ice on record (since 1950), driven by extreme melt in both western North America and Europe, according to preliminary data.

Antarctic sea ice extent was by far the lowest on record, with the maximum extent at the end of winter at 1 million km^2 below the previous record year - equivalent to the size of France and Germany combined.

The number of people who are acutely food insecure worldwide has more than doubled, from 149 million people before the COVID-19 pandemic to 333 million people in 2023 (in 78 monitored countries by the World Food Programme). Weather and climate extremes may not be the root cause, but they are aggravating factors, according to the report.

Weather hazards continued to trigger displacement in 2023, showing how climate shocks undermine resilience and create new protection risks among the most vulnerable populations.

There is, however, a glimmer of hope.

Renewable energy generation, primarily driven by the dynamic forces of solar radiation, wind and the water cycle, has surged to the forefront of climate action for its potential to achieve decarbonization targets. In 2023, renewable capacity additions increased by almost 50% from 2022, for a total of 510 gigawatts (GW) – the highest rate observed in the past two decades.

Observed concentrations of the three main greenhouse gases – carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide – reached record levels in 2022. Real-time data from specific locations show a continued increase in 2023.

CO2 levels are 50 % higher than the pre-industrial era, trapping heat in the atmosphere. The long lifetime of CO2 means that temperatures will continue to rise for many years to come.

The global mean near-surface temperature in 2023 was 1.45 ± 0.12 °C above the pre-industrial 1850–1900 average. 2023 was the warmest year in the 174-year observational record. ...

Global average sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) were at a record high from April onwards, with the records in July, August and September broken by a particularly wide margin. Exceptional warmth was recorded in the eastern North Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, the North Pacific and large areas of the Southern Ocean, with widespread marine heatwaves.

Ocean heat content reached its highest level in 2023, according to a consolidated analysis of data. Warming rates show a particularly strong increase in the past two decades.

It is expected that warming will continue – a change which is irreversible on scales of hundreds to thousands of years.

In 2023, global mean sea level reached a record high in the satellite record (since 1993), reflecting continued ocean warming (thermal expansion) as well as the melting of glaciers and ice sheets.

The rate of global mean sea level rise in the past ten years (2014–2023) is more than twice the rate of sea level rise in the first decade of the satellite record (1993–2002).

Antarctic sea-ice extent reached an absolute record low for the satellite era (since 1979) in February 2023 and remained at record low for the time of year from June till early November. The annual maximum in September was 16.96 million km^2, roughly 1.5 million km^2 below the 1991–2020 average and 1 million km^2 below the previous record low maximum.

Arctic sea-ice extent remained well below normal, with the annual maximum and minimum sea ice extents being the fifth and sixth lowest on record respectively.

Ice sheets: There are two principal ice sheets, the Greenland Ice Sheet and the Antarctic ice Sheet. Combining the two ice sheets, the seven highest melt years on record are all since 2010, and average rates of mass loss increased from 105 Gigatonnes per year from 1992–1996 to 372 Gigatonnes per year from 2016–2020. This is equivalent to about 1 mm per year of global sea level rise attributed to the ice sheets in the latter period.

The Greenland Ice Sheet continued to lose mass in the hydrological year 2022–2023 It was the warmest summer on record at Greenland’s Summit station, 1.0 °C warmer than the previous record. Satellite melt-extent data indicate that the ice sheet had the third highest cumulative melt-day area on record (1978–2023), after the extreme melt season of 2012 and 2010.

Glaciers: Preliminary data for the hydrological year 2022-2023 indicate that the global set of reference glaciers suffered the largest loss of ice on record (1950-2023), driven by extremely negative mass balance in both western North America and Europe.

Glaciers in the European Alps experienced an extreme melt season. In Switzerland, glaciers have lost around 10% of their remaining volume in the past two years. Western North America suffered record glacier mass loss in 2023 – at a rate which was five times higher than rates measured for the period 2000-2019. Glaciers in western North America have lost an estimated 9% of their 2020 volume over the period 2020-2023.

02:20 UTC


Rising Ocean Temperature

The United Nations weather agency has issued a "red alert" on climate change after record heat in 2023. It is expected this year, 2024, will be worse than last year.

Ocean temperatures are currently on an alarming rise, reaching unprecedented levels in 2024. This increase in temperature has serious consequences for the ocean's ecosystems and human populations. Rising ocean temperatures can lead to mass coral bleaching, a deadly phenomenon that decimates coral reefs, crucial to marine biodiversity. Corals are the foundation of many ecological systems, supporting countless other organisms.

Each line is the ocean temperature during a given year (1982 through 2022). The mean ocean temperature is the dotted black line. The colorful lines are the ocean temperatures in the last few years, showing them to be the hottest on record. The dark black line at the top is what it was in 2023. Already in 2024 it is higher than 2023.

As the atmosphere heats up, the oceans heat up, potentially causing a rise in sea level and a disruption of vital ocean currents that regulate weather around the world.

The loss of coral reefs would have devastating consequences for marine ecosystems and the livelihoods of millions who depend on them. Furthermore, rising ocean temperatures affect marine species' ability to adapt. Warmer waters can cause changes in distribution patterns, making it challenging for organisms to find suitable habitats or locate food sources. This could result in mass extinctions and the loss of crucial linkages in ecological chains. Rising ocean temperatures also pose risks to human communities.

Rising sea levels can threaten coastal areas, causing erosion, flooding, and destruction of infrastructure. Additionally, warmer waters may lead to more frequent and intense marine heatwaves, harming fish stocks and disrupting marine ecological balances.

01:53 UTC


Rising Sea Water

If the sea waters are going to rise due to ice caps melting (will this happen?) what if we started pumping sea water into giant tanks inland? Would this work? Just a a thought .. I have no scientific knowledge whatsoever.

20:27 UTC

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