Photograph via snooOG

Botany is the scientific study of plants. Topics may include: Evolution, Ecology, Morphology, Systematics, and Physiology.

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Assessing botanical capacity report

Online botanical resources


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Evolution of Whorled Leaves

Hello, I am trying to write a paper on Cleaver (Galium aparine) and the origin of its whorled leaf arrangement and I'm getting stuck. I was able to find resources pointed to when and from what the whorled arrangement evolved, but I still can't find a lot of literature on why it evolves, like what circumstances favor a whorled arrangement over any other kind of leaf arrangement.

Aware that many other plants have such an arrangement, but they range from shrubs to trees and from different clades so I'm not seeing a throughline.

I was thinking maybe it had something to do with lots of crowding so the plant could get as much light as possible from any direction, mostly because I find cleaver all over the dense forest trails where I live (Washington state), but I can't exactly prove that. Also doesn't help the fact that cleaver only grows ON the trails and struggles off-trail.

Is it even something we can explain? Help would be appreciated, thank you

01:32 UTC


When will new fruit and vegetables drop?

Ancient and medieval people were breeding new vegetables left and right, willy nilly. You'd think that with our modern understandings of genetics and selective breeding, we'd have newfangled amazing fruits and vegetables dropping every week.

22:28 UTC


Is this plant revivable?

also what plant is this

10:38 UTC


Plant virus elimination trials, ideas sought

A friend and I are planning to do trials of methods to eliminate viruses from plants, particularly orchids. We plan to test: 1. Chemicals like ribavirin, titanium dioxide, colloidal silver, copper sulfate, zinc sulfate, herbal tinctures and essential oils of garlic, oregano, mirabilis jalapa, Phytolacca americana. 2. Thermotherapy with plants in an incubator at 32 to 37 deg c for 20 to 100 days. 3. Cryotherapy not being tested due to damage to tissues. 4. Electrotherapy with tens machine to apply 5 to 20mA for 5 to 30 mins. We are keen to get suggestions of other things to test especially chemicals to apply, and penetrants and additives to make foliar applications rainfast to prolong surface contact. Donations from Australia of viruses material also appreciated. Many thanks in advance

05:09 UTC


Is this bacterial or fungal growth on plant?

I was gifted a Thai chili pepper plant. It was healthy looking at first, but then these spots developed on the leaves, and then the leaves began to curl. It almost looks like anthracnose, as well as leaf spot, though that’s what my amateur self with access to Google came up with. As I doubt it has both a fungal and bacterial infection, I was wondering what people here thought?

01:46 UTC


Where can you get hired as a plant morpholist?

I am going to be a junior in high school next year, and I have a high interest in plants and their external anatomy. Unfortunately, the Ecology class isn't running next year (due to low interest) so I have no classes that can satisfy what I'm looking for. I really enjoyed the plant section of the biology class I took this past year. Unfortunately, the Biotech class isn't running aswll next year, so I have to wait until my senior year to take AP Bio. The main question is: Where can I work as a plant morpholist? I believe it's on the higher end of plant "jobs" and though I don't know what colleges even have that kind of degree available, in sure that it's hard to get. I just hope i get to do what I want to do.

01:20 UTC


Where to potentially find and define mycelium in the soil

Hello, Good Morning, Afternoon, or Evening to whoever might be reading this post.
I have a current lesson or observation I am walking myself through, it concerns the methods through which plants communicate amongst themselves and across various regions in the world. In search and practice, I have dug up the soil by certain plants/trees to potentially take a picture of the mycelium that functions underneath the soil in a symbiotic relationship with a plant's roots, I noticed some of the thin or hairlike threads I saw in the soil might have been secondary roots of a plant, but finding actual fungi threads to a mycorrhizal network and differentiating that from what might potentially be roots was also a though I explored. I am observing these things(plants) in my lesson on understanding how they interact with the world around them, and in this case, the fungi are involved in the underground network. So, a Redditor of r/botany or any individual or person(s) versed in such sightings of plant growth and what hyphae might look like if I dig up the ground, I'd be glad to get your response.
Thank you

Some images from the ground I dug next to a plant(tree)



22:57 UTC


What actually are the well paying botany jobs?

Specifically in the fields of plant biology or ecology with a batchelors or masters degree.

21:38 UTC


Question about sugar content in produce

Through artificial selection and genetic modifications in produce, we continue to favor sweeter and sweeter fruits. Do these increasingly sweeter fruits contain more fiber as well? Or are we just turning our healthy fruits into candy.

19:37 UTC


For those with an MS/PhD in Botany, what jobs do you have now? What jobs have you had post degree?

Hoping to hear from individuals working within the botany field with a masters/doctorate and what jobs they either currently hold or previously have had. Thanks!>!​!<

17:36 UTC


Is this a sucker?

Should I leave it be or is it detrimental to the trees health?

15:10 UTC


Do butterfly pea flowers show incomplete dominance?

I am curious about genetic inheritance and I was wondering the inheritance of flower colour for butterfly pea. I know butterfly pea have 3 main colour types. Blue, light blue, and white though there are light purple too which I will ignore. Does anyone know if the light blue colour is an example of incomplete dominance like snapdragons and if heterozygous plants produce light blue flowers?

14:30 UTC


Do Abelia fruit or have seed pods??

I took a picture earlier this week to what seems to be an Abelia species (Abelia × Grandiflora I think), and I keep a journal in where I document every flowering plant I come across. I need the fruiting information just due to documentation purposes. I tried looking online but it doesn't seem to help much to say whether they do or not. Does anyone know by chance??

00:59 UTC


ISO BIPOC botanists/ecologists/mycologists

Hi, I’ve been listening to podcasts and happily following the social media accounts of anyone spanning the career fields of geology-ecology I’ve heard about, but I noticed I haven’t found many BIPOC people in this field yet to follow. I get that “identity politics” can be an argument starter, but I myself am not white and it does feel nice to see more diverse people doing what I enjoy learning about and aspire to get in to professionally.

If you have any suggestions, I would be so happy to learn about them.

(Also open to more non-BIPOC suggestions since I’m obviously still in to the topic and just enjoy people who are in to nature 🌈)

Thank you in advance! 🌻

22:36 UTC


can someone explain why one branch is almost 10’ long and the others are nubs?

this pothos is my only plant, and is about 6 years old now. she’s been rotated around my room so the other side gets no sun, but only this one branch grows

22:00 UTC


Mentor or Career advise

Heya everyone, I just graduated undergrad but I’ve been doing biochemistry and microbiology research for around half a decade now. My goal is to apply to PhD programs in 2-3 years but I want to get some kind of experience to make my application more appealing.

I’ve been applying to some agricultural and plant research jobs but haven’t heard back other than a few that say they don’t have funding. Would anyone be willing to talk to me about how they got started in the field or be willing to answer any questions for me? I don’t really know where to start honestly, I’ve done cold emailing and LinkedIn messaging but that hasn’t yielded anything concrete.

Any advice would be helpful! If you’d be willing to talk on a zoom call that’d be even better! Just DM me and I’ll try to set something up.

1 Comment
17:56 UTC


Help with identifying Corolla tubes

Hi! I’m new to botany have been practicing using a flower key for identification. I’m struggling to understand why petals in legume flowers like this clover are “free and separate”. To me it looks like the petals are fused together to form a Corolla tube. Would anyone be able to explain this to me? 🙏

16:53 UTC


Baby Kale Abnormal Vegetative Structures

What is this condition called? Are the outgrowths called leaflets? Is this a genetic corruption from all the inbreeding?

00:36 UTC



May have learned a valuable new plant today, maybe from the nettles family?

23:20 UTC


AI-generated misinformation is everywhere

So, I was looking for information on the rare Fijian endemic magnoliid genus Degeneria today (it doesn't even have any iNaturalist observations yet)... and stumbled upon this AI-generated rabbit hole:
I was immediately suspicious when it described several species of Degeneria in New Caledonia and Vanuatu (news to me and the botanical science community) including "D. rhabdocarpa", "D. utilis" and "D. decussata". Unsurprisingly, a quick Google search found that these species are endemic to Botanico Hub.
On the home page, Botanico Hub immodestly describes itself as "the world’s most comprehensive plant encyclopedia in the world [sic] with detailed information on 1,046,570 species, subspecies, genera, and families"
But it gets weirder. As I explored the website and started looking at other families I had a better knowledge of, I found that it's a mix of real taxonomy and AI-hallucinated nonsense. I wonder who's hosting the website, and for what end?

12:09 UTC


How does vinegar/salt solutions effect plant/soil health

As a hobby horticulturist I have a lot of people asking me the efficacy of using salt/vinegar solutions as a weedkiller and I don't know the answer.

If I had to guess I would think that dumping that into your soil is going to wreak havoc with any plants you do want growing there due to acidity and salt levels, am I on the right lines of thinking or is it really as safe as people keep trying to tell me?

10:07 UTC


Textbook Recommendations

I am reading through the Intro Botany textbook by Mauseth, and I will read Systematics by Simpson, and Physiology by Zeiger.

What further books would be good to learn some in depth botany information?

I'm interested in any botany topic, it all is nice to learn about.


Edit - I already watch Crime pays but but botany doesn't, and have the book Botany in a Day.

02:46 UTC

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